Some spinach cultivars are expected to have pretty bumpy, puckered leaves.  If your plants are not that type, but the leaves look like that or have small holes in them when they expand, crown mites (Rhizoglyphus sp.) are a possible cause.  Conditions that favor mite activity and damage are a soil high in organic matter and a cool, moist environment.   Mites can be found in both soil and within the smallest, just-opening leaves in the crown of the plant.

Puckered leaves on spinach cultiver 'Tyee' caused by crown mite feeding.  J. Allen photo.

Puckered leaves on spinach cultiver ‘Tyee’ caused by crown mite feeding. J. Allen photo.

Magnification is required to see these tiny, nearly transparent mites.  Transparent, spherical eggs are laid in the inner folded leaves and mites of all stages of development can be found together.  They feed on germinating seeds, seedlings and young plants.  Damage is reported to be less significant as the plants increase in size.  The mites are characterized by having long hair-like setae attached to their posteriors as seen in the magnified image.

 

Magnified spinach crown mite showing setae on the posterior end.  J. Allen photo.

Magnified spinach crown mite showing setae on the posterior end. J. Allen photo.

Masses of spherical, transparent eggs inside folded immature crown leaves. J. Allen photo.

Masses of spherical, transparent eggs inside folded immature crown leaves. J. Allen photo.

This pest was first described in the U.S. in California in 1949, so it’s familiar to spinach growers there, but it’s pretty new to us in New England.  There was a report of this pest from Rutgers University in New Jersey in 2013.  Definitely something to be aware of if you grow spinach.  The occurrence reported here was from New London County, Connecticut.  The spinach was being grown in a high tunnel and about 75% of the young plants were affected with symptoms as pictured above.

Recommendations for this pest include good sanitation (removal of infested plants) and crop rotation.  Efforts to promote warm temperatures and reduced humidity may also be helpful.  For additional information, this is a good fact sheet from University of California.

By J. Allen

 

This snowy, never ending winter had me looking for some horticultural therapy these past couple of months. Combing through seed catalogs back when the snow was over the picnic table, I came across some peas for sprouting. In the past, I had tried alfalfa sprouts, radish sprouts, bean sprouts, wheatgrass sprouts and even lentil sprouts but never peas. So, on to my order form they went and came in the mail a few weeks later.

Anyone who has grown peas knows they sprout and grow quite readily. I filled a few flats with moistened soilless growing mix. No fertilizer is necessary as the plants will be harvested a couple of weeks after they germinate and all the nutrition they need for that short of a time period is in the seed. Some sources suggested soaking the seeds overnight, which would probably speed germination by a few days, but I just planted them rather thickly and then covered the seeds with a half inch or so of growing mix. Then the flat got a light watering so that the seeds would be surrounded by moist but not saturated media.

Pea seeds for sprouting. DMP

Pea seeds for sprouting. DMP

I put my flat in a clear plastic bag in an east facing window to keep the moisture in and also to keep the temperature a bit on the cool side – just the way peas like it. Within less than a week the seeds sprouted. Remove the flat from the bag as soon as you see about half the seeds germinating. Water when the media starts to dry out. While I used a plastic flat (which I will was and reuse) I noticed one enterprising pea shoot grower on the web was using those crates that clementines come in.

Pea seeds sprouting. DMP

Pea seeds sprouting. DMP

That they got less that one half a day’s worth of sun (less with all the cloudy days we had) did not really matter since they were going to be harvested when only 3 or 4 inches tall. If you were growing them for profit, the pea seedlings would be grown in brighter light to keep them from being leggy.

 In about 3 weeks, I harvested my green pea shoots and had them on my salad last week. So while I could not plant my peas outdoors on St. Patrick’s Day, I could plant them indoors and give myself a small dose of spring in a pot.

Pea sprouts for a healthy, nutritious salad. DMP

Pea sprouts for a healthy, nutritious salad. DMP

Not only are pea shoots easy to grow but surprisingly nutritious. They contain vitamins C and A, and 4 times the amount of folic acid as is found in bean sprouts. And they taste good too! Just planted a second batch!

Dawn P.

Bee collecting pollen

Bee with pollen sacks full on legs. photo by etsu.edu

Bees are extremely important and responsibly for 75% of the foods we eat every day. There are more than 4,000 species of bees in North America, and about 350 in the Northeast. They include honey bees, bumble bees, mason bees, carpenter bees, sweat bees, orchard bees, and the list goes on! Some are programmed to visit only a certain species of plants while others are cosmopolitan feeders, going to a wide variety of flowers to seek out nectar and pollen. They all pollinate flowers that then produce a fruit or vegetable. Leaf crops are the exception, but it could be said that without pollination, fruiting and the resulting seed production, there would not be seed for future leaf crops. So we need bees, all kinds of bees, not just honey bees. Other insects, animals and even some birds also pollinate certain crops. Hummingbirds come to mind for one.

Bees of the Eastern U.S., by osu.edu, Alex Surcica,

Bees of the Eastern U.S., by osu.edu, Alex Surcica,

How do we keep our bee pollinators happy and alive to do the job? I have listed the highlights of ways we humans can assist this important tasks on which we depend.

white willow in bloom, hort.uconn.edu

white willow in bloom, hort.uconn.edu

Food for bees. Plant flowers. Trees and shrubs are important flowering plants in addition to the perennials, annuals and vegetables that we normally think of when taking bees into consideration. Trees and shrubs typically flower very early in the spring, some in late winter, providing nectar sources for the very early bees that emerge from their winter hiding places and nests. Willows and witchhazels are bloomers bees count on. Think continued blooming to feed from early season until will into the fall. Also plant en masse. Bees flying overhead are more likely to find larger groupings of plants in flower than just one or two plants spaced apart.

Types of plants that provide a heavy nectar source are best. Single flowered plants produce more nectar and pollen than plants bred for double flowers. An example is cosmos; the original single petal variety is better for bees than the flower with a double row of petals. Same goes for double petunias. Think single flowers. Plants in the mint and aster families are huge nectar producers beloved by bees. Asters and golden rod bloom late when there is not much else out. It goes without saying that native plants will be a benefit to native bees, aligned to bloom and provide sustenance at just the right time it is needed most.

The Xerces Society has a great native plant list for the northeast at the link below.

http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/NortheastPlantList_web.pdf

Bee drinking, ucanr.edu

Bee drinking, ucanr.edu, Kathy Keatley Garvey photo

Water for bees. All life needs water. Bees do not swim, nor can they ‘stand’ on water. Bird baths are great, just keep them shallow and place a rock with the top exposed into the center of the water. This gives the bees a place to drink from without drowning. In the wild, bee drink from damp edges of streams and ponds, and wet soil. Place shallow plates of water among your plants.

http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=1450

Bee housing, uvm.edu

Bee housing, uvm.edu

Bee keeper and hive, tufts.edu

Housing for bees. Honey bees can live in hives, managed by humans, but they don’t need our help. In nature, they will find a protected hole in a tree, a cavity or wall void in which to live. There are many other bee species that are not honey bees. Two thirds of these bees live in than soil. Some solitary, others in communities. Beware of soil tillage. Digging up the ground can and will disturb bee nests. Observe an area before disturbing the soil. If bees are present, if you see them entering the ground, coming and going, you have an active bee pollinator area. Bees like to live in a sunny area where the soil is warmer, and especially on the edge of woods. Dead trees and broken branches, piles of brush and undisturbed grassy areas provide protection and cover for many bee living quarters. Some bees make their homes in hollow stems of plants, others will hollow out dead twigs. As gardeners, we usually clean up these areas, but leave some as bee habitat.

Ground dwelling bee, entomology.osu.edu

Ground dwelling bee, entomology.osu.edu

Don’t use pesticides. To protect the bees, never spray any insecticide or fungicide when flowers are open and bees are present. Bees are active during daylight hours, so for growers and others that must spray as a last resort for certain pests and crops, it should be applied during the dark of morning, i.e. 4 a.m. to avoid hitting the bees and so that the pesticide dries before the bees become active. Systemic insecticides, ones that are applied to the soil then taken up by the plant, will move to all parts of the plant, including the pollen, nectar and even gutation water formed as tiny droplets expressed on leaf edges. Bees will take in the pesticide through these sources, and while it may not be enough to kill them outright, the toxins will weaken the bees and build up in the colony.

-Carol Quish

One of the first " signs of spring" Porter Street Manchester early March 2015

One of the first ” signs of spring” Porter Street Manchester early March 2015

Well, this has been an endless winter it seems, at least, in New England. Snow, snow, and more snow, and today is the first day of spring and we may get more. But at least we have seen patches of ground lately as the snow is returning to the sky as water vapor or seeping through the soil as water. At least spring snows leave in a timely manner.

Still the winter was not a complete bust. I came across a nice little planting of Red- osier dogwood while snow still covered the ground and made a nice backdrop so the brilliant red twigs could show off their splendid colors. Its winter contrast to the white snow cover is one of the reasons to consider this plant for your landscape. This variety may be Cornus sericea “ Kelsei, which is a dwarf having very slender branches, and growing only a couple of feet high and wide. Or perhaps it is ” Midnight Fire” or “ Cardinal ”. Some red-osiers should be regularly pruned back to keep older branches from changing to a dull gray and to encourage the younger red twigs to develop instead.

P1060055

Red-osier dogwoods along a stone wall in Connecticut- March 13 ,2015

I always look for Horned Larks, Eremophila alpestris, around the end of winter and the beginning of spring as large grassy areas become open as snow melts. A common migrant and winter visitor to Connecticut, these  birds can be found nearly every year in the fields near the Meig’s Point Nature Center at Hammonasset State Park. They just arrived this week as pastures lost large amounts of snow cover along Horse Barn Hill Road on the UConn campus. This open upland bird is threatened as habitats are being lost due to reforestation or other events. It walks along the ground and can be difficult to see as it blends in with the brown dormant pasture grasses. It is named for its little, black “ horns “, which are really just tufts of feathers and may not always be visible as sometimes they are flattened against the head.

Horned Lark at Meig's Point March 13, 2015

Horned Lark at Meig’s Point March 13, 2015

Phoebes are one of our first migrating breeding birds to arrive in Connecticut, often appearing well before any insects are available to eat. These are members of the fly-catchers, and can be recognized by their rather large head, gray back, wings, and tail, and whitish belly. They have a sweet “ pick” call and distinctive raspy “ phoebe “ song. When they perch, they wag their tails. Some were already reported as arriving along the coastal areas of Connecticut last week. Haven’t seen or heard any up in my area yet.

Deer are also becoming more frequent visitors to some backyards now that they can travel through substantially less snow cover than w had all winter. Many people reported seeing no deer at all since last December. Well, if any did not starve to death, they are once more returning to their favorite haunts, which may include your own backyard. Two days ago three deer  (out of a formerly larger group that would be seen together) came by my back yard, browsing for what little understory plants or acorns they could find. Two ended up bedding down in the yard for most of the day, enjoying the sun and its welcome warmth plus the peace and quiet that comes from having no dogs bopping around to trouble their calm.

Deer napping in the sun in my backyard

Deer napping in the sun in my backyard

 

 

 

 

Same deer cleaning its feet

Same deer cleaning its feet

If you get to any swampy areas, you can see the skunk cabbages starting to appear out of the snow and ice. The skunk cabbage is one on many thermogenic plants that has the ability to raise their own temperatures above that of the air that surrounds them. Thus, this is one of the first plants to bloom in the spring, starting as early as February and continuing until May. Because the flower grows so quickly, enough warmth is generated to heat the soil around it and cause snow to melt as the soil is warmed.

So it is out with the old, in with the new, and the new should be much better and more fun than old man winter…shouldn’t it?

 

Pamm Cooper                              All photos copyright 2015 by Pamm Cooper     Use by permission only

The Return of the Grackles

This has been a very cold and snowy winter but spring is right around the corner. There is nothing better than a walk around the yard looking for the first signs of the crocus pushing up through the sometimes still snow-covered ground. Or cutting forsythia branches to bring inside where the warmth of our home will force the buds into blooms of yellow sunshine. And each year we look forward to the return of the grackles, a sure sign to us that winter is losing its grip.

image 1         Since 1996, when they arrived on March 6th, my daughter Hannah has been tracking the reappearance of the grackles each spring. Her journal entries document this harbinger in a way that only a child could. Her entry in 1998 at the age of 8, complete with a drawing, is priceless.

diary 1

diary 2

diary 3

The dates have fluctuated from the earliest sighting on February 20, 2005 to the latest on March 21, 1999. The temperatures also have ranged from 33 degrees on that same day in February in 2005 (although it had been close to 50 degrees in the days prior) to 68 degrees on March 17, 2003. There have been years where snow still covered the ground.

diary 4diary 6

Everyone may not be as happy to see the grackles as we are. Although primarily ground feeders they will clean out a bird feeder in no time at all if there is still snow cover. Between them and the starlings it can be a chore to keep the suet and feeders full for the other birds that have been feeding all winter. The grackles move into this area as their breeding grounds after wintering just a bit to our south in Pennsylvania and all the way to Florida. They forage and roost in large communal flocks of up to a million individuals and can therefore have a huge impact in an area. Grackles will eat ripening corn as well as corn sprouts and are the #1 threat to the corn crop causing damage in the multimillion dollar range.

Hannah went off to college in 2008 but we still look for the grackles to return and I send her a picture at the first sighting each year.

image 2

image 3

image 4

If you are interested in tracking birds or other species in your area there are a couple of great options. The USA national Phenology Network is an organization that collects such data from researchers, students, and volunteers as a tool to understanding and adapting to variable and changing climates and environments. Please visit their site for more information: USA-NPN. Also, mark your calendars for February 12-15, 2016 for the next Great Backyard Bird Count as another way to help track bird species in your area.

Susan Pelton

All images by Susan Pelton

A lot of snow cover during the winter can be both good and bad. Good because it’s beautiful and nice for winter sports. It also insulates overwintering perennial roots from temperature fluctuations and extremes. One of the negative impacts is that the snow provides cover for the activity of voles. These small mouse-like rodents feed on the bark of roots or lower trunks of woody plants during the winter and they are likely to feed where protected by shelter, including snow.

Vole tunnels left in turf grass during winter under the snow. (Photo: USDA Forest Service – North Central Research Station Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org )

As the snow melts in the spring, look for tunnel-like tracks in lawns and gardens that are telltale signs of their activity in the area. If plants that were healthy last season are weak or fail to leaf out completely this year, look for evidence of vole damage as shown in the photos.

Meadow vole damage.  Photo: Robert L. Anderson,  USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org (upper photo)   Vole damage to a large fruit tree root; note teeth marks. Photo: Paul Bachi, Univ of KY Research & Educ. Ctr., Bugwood.org (lower photo)

Two voles species are common in our area, the pine vole and the meadow vole. Pine voles feed primarily on the roots below ground while meadow voles prefer to feed on bark above the soil line. More information on vole damage and control is available in this Cornell University fact sheet.

By J. Allen

The UConn Perennial Plant Conference, held March 5th 2015 at the Storrs campus, had a number of inspiring topics and speakers. There is always a new plant I have got to try (Phlox ‘Minnie Pearl), a new perspective on gardening (I don’t have time for namby pambies either) and perceptions to ponder (what the public thinks about local vs. organic vs. eco-friendly).

A session that I found quite interesting was Dr. Mark Brand’s talk on UConn’s plant introductions. I was familiar with a few of them but had no idea how many plants the dedicated and passionate breeders at the College had created or discovered, evaluated and released over the years.

As a horticulturist at Old Sturbridge Village, I remember planting the parking lot beds with basil ’Dark Opal’ and surrounding the lovely, purple-leaved plants with pink zinnias. Little did I realize that this 1962 All America Selections winner was bred by UConn’s John Scarchuk. He and other researchers at the Lee Farm in Coventry, CT worked with ornamental basils, peppers, lettuce and squash.

Dark Opal basil AAS winner 1962 from www.allmericaselections.org

Dark Opal basil AAS winner 1962 from http://www.allmericaselections.org

Dr. Sidney Waxman’s work was primarily focused on dwarf conifers which he grew from witches brooms. These are dense masses of shoots, caused by a disease or other irregularity, emerging from a single growing point and typically found on woody plants. Dr. Waxman was known to shoot these down from trees and propagate the stems. For almost 4 decades he planted and evaluated countless plants and introduced perhaps 40 to 45 cultivars. Much work was done with eastern white pine and we have Dr. Waxman to thank for cultivars such as ‘Coney Island’, ‘Blue Shag’, ‘Sea Urchin’ and ‘Old Softie’ along with larch ‘Varied Directions’ and Japanese umbrella pine ‘Wintergreen’. See the link for an article by Dr. Waxman on 4 of his selections.

http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1068&context=saes

Determination and vision for a more compact and floriferous Madagascar periwinkle drove Dr. Ronald Parker to plant 30,000 seeds each year for more than a decade. This massive effort resulted in four All America Selection winners that were featured on the cover of Smithsonian magazine. ‘Pretty in Pink’ (AAS 1991), ‘Pretty in Rose’ (AAS 1991), ‘Pretty in White’ (AAS 1992) and ‘Parasol’ (AAS 1991) brought these plants into the contemporary bedding plant world and were the largest royalty earning invention at UConn. Dr. Parker was also responsible for ‘Pacifica Red’ and the Tropicana series and began the quest for a yellow impatiens and developed the Sea Shell series.

Pretty in Pink, 1991 AAS winner, photo from www.allamericaselections.org

Pretty in Pink, 1991 AAS winner, photo from http://www.allamericaselections.org

Dr. Gustav Mehlquist created UConn White Sim No. 1 using irradiation in 1962. This white carnation cultivar was extremely well received and at one time it accounted for about 75% of the white carnations produced worldwide. It is likely that its genes remain in the white carnations grown for cut flowers today.

A passion for rhododendrons led to Dr. Mehlquist’s quest for a yellow, cold hardy rhododendron. He worked for almost 25 years using 4 main species of rhododendrons and introduced ‘White Peter’, ‘Connecticut Yankee’ and ‘Firestorm’ as well as the Raise the Roof series (that Dr. Brand worked on as well) which was featured on the cover of a HortScience Journal issue. The Raise the Roof series was named, by the way, at a past Perennial Plant Conference while tuning into a UConn basketball game. ‘March Madness’ and ‘Slam Dunk’ are already available through Monrovia Nursery (www.monrovia.com) but yellow ‘Buzzer Beater’, ‘Huskymania’ and ‘Hoopla’ will be offered in the future.

Buzzer Beater yellow rhododendron, photo by Mark Brand, UConn

Buzzer Beater yellow rhododendron, photo by Mark Brand, UConn

Throughout the 1980’s, Dr. Mark Bridgen was breeding alstromerias for fragrance and cold hardiness. He introduced several cultivars including ‘Sweet Laura’, ‘Freedom’ and ‘Liberty. I planted ‘Sweet Laura’ last year and this winter will sure be a test for her cold tolerance. I suspect that more winter mulching and a milder winter might be required for survival in my yard.

Dr. Brand introduced one of my favorite trees that is presently growing in my white garden, Carolina silverbell ‘UConn Wedding Bells’ (Halesia carolina) which is covered with lovely white bell-shaped flowers each spring. He also bred ‘Ruby Ribbons’, a fantastic blue-green ornamental grass (Panicum virgatum) that turns burgundy as the season progresses. Combine it with rosy autumn flowering sedums and white asters.

Dr. Mark Brand with Ruby Ribbons, UConn photo

Dr. Mark Brand with Ruby Ribbons, UConn photo

While butterfly bushes (Buddleia spp.) are not considered an invasive plant in Connecticut, they are in more southern states where the plants have time to set seed. Dr. Brand, along with UConn graduate student, Bill Smith while looking at seedlings produced by EMS mutation  introduced ‘Summer Skies’, a variegated buddleia and have since evaluated a number of dwarf forms for their growing habits and seed producing abilities, with the goal being few or no seeds. Some of these new dwarf butterfly bushes will be introduced as part of the Better Homes and Gardens Program through Walmart in 2016.

Summer Skies variegated butterfly bush. Photo by Mark Brand, UConn

Summer Skies variegated butterfly bush. Photo by Mark Brand, UConn

Two invasive species in Connecticut, barberry and burning bush have gotten much attention from UConn plant breeders. Dr. Brand for a number of years now has grown and evaluated numerous Japanese barberry cultivars for seed production (how he got those grad students to harvest berries off those prickly plants is beyond me) and come up with several cultivars with nice ornamental foliage and few if any seeds. Dr Yi Li has been working on developing sterile cultivars of burning bush.

Another facet of plant introductions focuses on native shrubs. Dr. Brand has been working with both upright and prostrate forms of aronia for ornamental purposes as well as fruit production. UC166 is a more upright form that may lend itself well to commercial harvesting. Aronia berries have many nutritional qualities including a very high content of antioxidants.

Compact aronia, photo by Mark Brand, UConn

Compact aronia, photo by Mark Brand, UConn

After hearing about ninebark ‘After Midnight’ (Physocarpus opuliolius), which reaches only 4 feet tall, I am definitely digging up ‘Diablo’ which keeps throwing long shoots up into the motion detector only to have my better half chop the bush back so that it never flowers and replacing it with this UConn introduction. Both Dr. Brand and grad student, Bill Smith had a hand in this compact, nearly black and powdery mildew resistant cultivar.

After Midnight ninebark, photo by Mark Brand, UConn

After Midnight ninebark, photo by Mark Brand, UConn

Since Dr. Jessica Lubell joined the UConn Plant Science & Landscape Architecture Department, she has teamed up with Dr. Brand and together they developed viburnum ‘Plum Pudding’ with a delightful purple fall foliage color and are working on a more compact female bayberry which would be great for those of us who love the scent of these native plants with their waxy white berries but don’t have the room for large plants. Dr. Lubell also discovered a lovely variation of our native American hazelnut (Corylus americana). ‘Brave Heart’ has a burgundy splotch on the leaves which fades to a lighter green reminding us that Mother Nature always has a surprise or two up her sleeves. Consider also what other plant breeders worldwide have contributed to our lives – enjoy the fruits of their labors and be grateful.

Dawn

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