There is a deciduous plant that grows as a small tree or shrub, is native not only to the Northeast but to most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, is a popular ornamental species appreciated for its flowers and its fall color, and it produces a deep purple fruit that is both edible and delicious. George Washington had specimens of this plant on his Mount Vernon estate but even before that the Native Americans mixed the fruit with dried meats and fat to create pemmican, a food that is high in both energy and nutrition. This plant goes by many names, some of the more unusual ones are sarvis, saskatoon, and chuckley pear. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here are some of the more common monikers: wild plum, sugar plum, service tree, and shadblow. Have it yet? Let’s keep going. How about shadbush, serviceberry, or Juneberry? Now you know it, it’s Amelanchier.

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Serviceberries

In fact, there are so many bits of lore surrounding the etymology of all of the various names attributed to this plant. Is it called sarvis or serviceberry because the fruit is similar to the European Sorbus or because its bloom in the spring coincided with the time that Appalachian mountain roads became passable enough for traveling clergy to hold services? Or is it shadbush or shadblow because the flowers appear when the shad are running? Or Juneberry because, you guessed it, the fruit appeared in June? I think that my favorite name is saskatoon which is derived from the Cree name for Amelanchier, misâskwatômina, which also lends its name to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan where the plant is native.

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The delicate blooms of Amelanchier captured by Pamm Cooper

 

One of the most common species of this plant that is found in New England is the Amelanchier canadensis, known as the Eastern shadbush. It comes as no surprise that this plant has so many names as there are between 6 and 33 species (depending on the source) due to the wide variety of hybrids and the fact that it is also found in Asia (A. sinica or Chinese serviceberry) and Europe (where the species A. ovalis is known as Snowy mesiplus).

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Amelanchier canandensis, aka Shadblow in its tree form, courtesy of Pamm Cooper

Adding to the confusion is that fact that this plant can be a small tree or a multi-stemmed clumping shrub. This happens when the new growth is heavily browsed by deer and rabbits and the plant takes on a tree-like shape instead of a shrub similar to many of the its fellow members of the Rose family. In full sun or part shade it can reach 20’ tall and has an airy, open look to it that is compounded by the fact that the white flowers emerge before the leaves in the spring. If it is left to its own devices then the suckers that are produced from the base of the plant can grow into a thicket.

The fruit that succeeds the flowers starts as a yellow, single-stone, berry-like ½” pome that hang in terminal clusters of 1 to 4 fruit. As the season progresses and the fruits ripen their color shifts to red, purple, and finally the deep almost black purple that signifies maturity. We have received several calls from the Connecticut Poison Control Center requesting identification of the Serviceberry fruit as it appears to be as attractive to children as it does to birds and wildlife. It is always nice to be able to report that it is in fact edible and harmless. When fully ripe the taste is sweet and a bit tart at the same time. I had a bowl of them in the fridge and my husband ate one, expecting that it was a grape, and was a bit surprised.

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The plum-like interior of the fruit

Amelanchier is not only grown for its fruit but as a popular ornamental shrub/tree. Although they are not drought tolerant and require good drainage and air circulation they do provide interest throughout the year. The delicate 2” white or pink blossoms appear in the spring around the time that the shad are running in the Connecticut River according to folk lore, generally in early April. The leaves follow the blooms and then the berries which are ripening now. Soon the leaves will turn from green to yellow to a beautiful orange or red and when they fall the tree will still provide interest in the form of its unusual grey bark which shows fissures as it ages.

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The interesting bark of Amelanchier

In addition to the aforementioned deer and rabbits Lepidoptera caterpillars and other insects also feed on Amelanchier. Among these are spider mites, sawflies, flatheaded borers, bark beetles and aphids. I did not see any aphids when I took these images but I did see a specimen that was heavily populated with Asian lady beetles, a heavy predator of aphids, in three different stages of development.

Amelanchier are susceptible to several diseases including Fire blight, Leaf spot, and Gymnosporangium rust, which affects the leaves, twigs, and fruit with distinctive orange lesions and spores. The alternate hosts of Gymnosporangium are juniper and cedar.

Another common affliction of stone fruit that also infects Amelanchier berries is Brown rot. Brown rot, or Monilinia amelanchieris, fungi persist in blighted blossoms, twig cankers, or on mummified fruit. In the cold winters of Connecticut it only survives by overwintering on fallen infected fruits. Apothecia are produced on berries that overwintered on the ground. These small mushroom-like structures release ascospores which can infect blossoms and cankers but not the fruit. In more temperate areas when early spring temperatures combine with moisture the conidia, the asexual reproductive spores, will be produced on cankers or mummified fruit that remained on the tree. The conidia of Monilinia form linked chains on the blighted tissue of blossoms or twigs from which the mature spores will detach to be spread by air, splashing water, or insects.

When vectored by feeding insects these spores will entire fruit through the open wounds. In the moist, moderately temperatured climate of the developing fruit the conidia will germinate in 2-4 hours although it may remain latent in green fruit. Mycelium, the vegetative part of the fungus that absorbs nutrients, and conidia, the spores, will sprout from the infected fruit causing the fruit to decay and turn brown.

When vectored by feeding insects these spores will enter fruit through the open wounds. In the moist, moderately temperatured climate inside the developing fruit the conidia will germinate in 2-4 hours although it may remain latent in green fruit. Mycelium, the vegetative part of the fungus that absorbs nutrients, and conidia, the spores, will sprout from the infected fruit as small, circular brown spots that cause the fruit to decay and turn brown. Within these areas tufts of greyish spores appear as the fruit mummifies. The fruit may remain on the tree or drop to the ground until the spring when the cycle starts again. Cleaning up dropped fruit and debris will help to cut down on reinfection and it is suggested that Amelanchier be planted in areas where the messy dropped ripe fruit is not an issue.

Better uses for the ripened fruit include jams, pies, wines, ciders, or dried like cranberries for use in cereals, trail mix, and snack foods. Or you could whip up big batch of that Native American favorite, pemmican, if you happened to have a load of thin slices of bison meat that have been dried in the sun and pounded into a powder, mixed with melted fat and the dried serviceberries and formed into patties. Just in time to store it away to delight your family at Thanksgiving!

Susan Pelton

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Photo by Joan Allen, UConn

 

Chrysanthemum season is upon us. This traditional and beautiful fall flower adds a splash of color when most other garden plants are fading for the season. Chrysanthemums have a long list of potential pest and disease problems but, most often, they are free of problems during their short reign of glory in the fall. This article will cover some of the most common problems, their symptoms and what to do to prevent or minimize them.

Several fungi can cause damage to leaves, flowers, and stems. They can cause spotting of leaves or petals and sometimes dieback of plant parts. The fungal disease ray blight results in spotted or killed leaves and stems along with flowers that may be blackened and deformed on one side. Fungal spore production, spread and new infections are all favored by moist conditions. Practices that minimize humidity and leaf wetness will in turn reduce these diseases. If possible, avoid overhead irrigation by watering at the base of the plant.  If this is impractical, water early in the day to promote rapid drying.  Space plants to allow for good airflow between them. Remove diseased plant parts or severely diseased leaves to protect those remaining. While fungicides are not typically necessary, they may be applied as directed on the label in severe cases to protect other plants.

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Symptoms of ray blight including aborted and damage flowers. Photo credit: Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden , British Crown, Bugwood.org

There are two important rust diseases of chrysanthemum. Symptoms on the upper surface of the leaves are quite similar for the two of them and consist of pale yellow leaf spots. To check for rust, flip the leaves over and look for sporulation.  Brown rust, the most common, will have small mounds of dark brown spores on the underside and white rust would have pale beige to peach colored spore masses.  White rust is important to report to state plant pathologists because it is an introduced and regulated disease.  The objective of these regulations and responses (plant destruction/quarantines) is to prevent this disease from becoming established in the United States. While this disease is primarily found in greenhouse and production facilities, it has been found in the landscape in Connecticut before. To inquire about a possible case, contact the UConn Plant Diagnostic Lab (email: joan.allen@uconn.edu, phone: 860-486-6740).

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Chrysanthemum brown rust spores (left) by Penn State Department of Plant Pathology & Environmental Microbiology Archives, Penn State University, Bugwood.org and white rust pustules (right) by Joan Allen, UConn.

Other problems that can affect the leaves and sometimes other parts include a bacterial leaf spot, foliar nematodes and a number of virus and viroid diseases. Symptoms of bacterial leaf spot of chrysanthemum are tan to dark brown areas that may be bordered by yellowing. Brown areas may be delimited by major leaf veins, giving the spots an angular appearance. Spotting may be associated with wilt or dieback. Spread is via splashing water, infected plant debris, or contaminated tools, hands, etc. Avoid working among wet plants and overhead irrigation. Remove and discard infected plants.

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Bacterial spot of chrysanthemum. Photo credit: R.K. Jones, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org

Foliar nematodes are microscopic worm-like organisms that move in a film of water on plant surfaces. They enter leaf tissue through the stomates (pores) and feed and reproduce within the leaves. Their movement within the leaf is restricted by the veins so that damage appears as a patchwork of angular leaf spots. Minimizing leaf wetness will reduce spread. Remove symptomatic leaves if there are only a few; if there are many, it’s best to discard the plant.

Foliar nematode injury on Chrysanthemum. Photo credit: Penn State University, Bugwood.org

Virus and viroid symptoms can include yellowing, stunting, rings or mottled patterns on the leaves, or plant deformity. Many of these pathogens are spread by insects that feed by piercing and sucking sap from the plant. Infected plants should be discarded.

In addition to this already somewhat long list, chrysanthemums may succumb to vascular wilt diseases caused by the fungi Fusarium and Verticillium.  These soil-borne fungi infect via the roots and grow within the plants xylem (conductive tissue) resulting in impaired movement of water and nutrients from the roots to the upper parts of the plant. Symptoms include leaf dieback, often on one side of the plant and sometimes beginning with the lower or older leaves first, wilt, and brown discoloration of the vascular tissue within the lower stem. Because both of these can survive without a suitable host plant in the soil for several years or more, alternative and non-susceptible plants should be planted in affected areas. Many cultivars are resistant to both diseases.

Root rot can affect chrysanthemum and can be caused by both fungi and water molds. Healthy roots should be creamy white and crisp or firm. If the plants are wilting or dying back, a check for brown, soft roots can be done by pulling the plant and inspecting them. Excess soil moisture due to poorly drained soil or overwatering promotes root rot. Avoid planting in poorly drained sites and avoid overwatering.

Quite a few insect and mite pests can occur occasionally on mums, too. Several aphid species are attracted to them and high populations can cause yellowing, stunting or deformed new growth. Many aphids can be removed with a strong spray of water. Other alternatives include insecticidal soap and horticultural oil.

If chewing injury is observed, that could be caused by beetles or caterpillars. For beetles, neem products may repel them from feeding. Caterpillars can be killed using products containing the biocontrol agent Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

Four-lined plant bug nymph and typical feeding injury on a leaf.  Photo credit: http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/insects

 

Several true bugs including the four-lined plant bug and tarnished plant bug feed on mums and many other plants by inserting piercing and sucking, straw-like mouthparts into leaves or stems and withdrawing sap. Tarnished plant bugs sometimes feed just below the flower buds, resulting in wilt of the stem.

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Chrysanthemum leafminer tunneling. Photo credit: Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org

 

Winding, irregular tunnels or blotches in the leaves are caused by the chrysanthemum leafminer. This pest is the larval stage of a fly. Insecticides are not generally recommended. Remove affected leaves or squash the miner within the leaf to kill it.

While this may seem like a daunting list of potential problems, I should restate that chrysanthemums in the landscape are usually pretty free from problems. The best ways to minimize the likelihood of trouble are to purchase healthy, vigorous plants free of any evidence of problems and to provide adequate water and an ideal site for the new plants. Once they’re in place, check on them regularly. Spotting signs of a problem early will give you the best chance of stopping it before it does serious damage.

“He who bears chives on his breathe, Is safe from being kissed to death.” Marcus Valerius Martialis in his “Epigrams”, 80 A.D.

Rather than bring tears to my eyes, all the alliums (members of the onion family, Alliaceae) in my herb and vegetable gardens bring a smile to my face. Garlic and curly chives are in full bloom, Egyptian walking onions are attempting to escape from the herb garden, second year leeks are going to seed and my ‘White Sweet Spanish’ onions are huge, sweet and juicy.

A pungent favorite of mine is garlic chives (Allium tuberosum). I grow it not only for its charming white flowers that are always useful in arrangements for our garden club’s Olde Home Day Flower Show Labor Day weekend but also for its very garlicky-flavored foliage. The bluish-green, flattish leaves are a tasty addition to stir fries, soups and other culinary dishes where a touch of garlic is nice. A former co-worker from China used to make most delicious Chinese dumplings using garlic chives as part of the stuffing.

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White flowering garlic chives by dm

Garlic chives, like most alliums, is a pollinator magnet with hordes of bumblebees and others busily collecting pollen from the round, white umbels of flowers. The flowers reach about 18 inches high. The flowers are also edible but a bit tough. Use them for that finishing touch to dress up salad plates. The one bad habit that garlic chives have is to self-seed everywhere so unless you want tons of plants, deadhead plants as blossoms start to fade.

Curly chives (A. senescens var. ‘Glaucum’) is also in full bloom right now. This plant also has bluish-green foliage but it is only 6 to 8 inches high and there is a nice wave to it. The flowers are small, one-inch umbels of a pinkish mauve color. Curly chives has a strong onion flavor to the leaves and I have never found any seedlings around it. Plants grow slowly, hold their foliage well, and would be useful in perennial beds and even as a border plant.

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Curly chives by dmp.

About 20 years ago, I planted seeds of ‘Evergreen Long White’ bunching onion (A. fistulosum) and I am still harvesting from the same patch. Also called scallions or green onions (although there are red bulb varieties), one could harvest the whole plant but I just cut the green stems and the plants continue to grow and multiply. If they get a bit too crowded, I will harvest whole plants. They are easily started from seed in the spring and like the garlic chives, their large flower umbels attract lots of pollinators but they self-seed very readily so as soon as the bees stop buzzing around the fairly nondescript flowers, I cut them all down. The green stems can be harvested from early spring until late fall once established.

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Green onions towards end of season by dmp.

Egyptian walking onions (A. cepa var. proliferum) are rather curious plants. Strong, large diameter green shoots emerge each spring and stand tall most of the summer. Unlike most allium species that form bulbs at their base, walking onions form a cluster of small bulbs at the top of their shoots. As these topsets reach maturity by the end of summer, they become heavier and heavier and finally the stalk can no longer bear their weight and down they go. This is why they are called walking onions.

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Egyptian walking onions leaving the herb garden – time to thin? photo by dmp

You can harvest the little onions at the end of the season and use them like I do in chicken pot pies – so much better than those squishy, frozen pearl onions – or in other dishes. Or, you can let them take root in place. Note they need to touch the bare mineral soil so remove any mulch from underneath them and tuck them into the soil slightly. If there are too many bulbs in the clusters, you may choose to harvest some and only leave a few to root. Or, you can separate the bulbs and plant them 2 inches deep for bigger topsets next harvest. Typically, it will take 2 years after planting for a topset to form.

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Egyptian walking onion topset. Photo by dmp.

A few years ago, I did not harvest all my leeks and a couple of them overwintered and bloomed the following year. I left them as pollinator plants and when the seed heads ripened, one keeled over and I left the seed head on the ground over the winter not having enough time to finish cleaning the garden before winter. Lo and behold, leek seedlings next spring! Since then I always leave a few leeks to overwinter and a few usually do so I get no work leek seedlings that I just have to transplant with good spacing between the plants every year since. The original leek that I planted was ‘King Richard’.

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Leek seed heads. Photo by dmp.

Finally, my late onions ‘White Sweet Spanish’ are remarkably large this year. This is a mild and sweet variety that stores only moderately well so I just leave them in the garden and pull as needed. They are needed quite often for everything from kebobs on the grill to warm tuna salad to lemony shrimp orzo to pepper and onion pizza so they should all be used up by the end of the month. Onions are ready to harvest when the tops fall over although you can harvest them any time you want. When I started gardening at first I purchased onion sets. These were available locally but the varieties were often limited. Then I started growing my own onions from seeds but like leeks they needed to be started in February. Now I just purchase onion plants. There is a decent selection of varieties to choose from that are suited to the northeast and it frees up the limited space under my plant lights.

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Onions ‘White Sweet Spanish’. photo by dmp.

Alliums are remarkably easy and fun to grow. They are great for both culinary and ornamental purposes. Try some, you’ll like them!

Dawn P.

Germander

Germander Plant, CQuish photo

Germander is an unusual perennial herb which makes a great edge of the border plant. Its Latin name is Teucrium chamaedrys. Germander takes well to shearing to form a garden border or knot garden, making it a good alternative to boxwood plants. Size of each plant will be about 10 inches tall with equal spread. It has also been used as a bonsai plant with great results.

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Germander Border Edge, CQuish photo

 

Germander is native to Europe, Syria and the Greek Islands. It likes a pH of 6.3 and well-drained soil. Plant will produce pink blooms sporadically from mid-summer through the fall. Leaves have a strong unusual scent when crushed, and have traditional been harvested for medicinal properties to treat a variety of ailments in times before modern medicine. Although some folks still practice herbal remedies, we cannot recommend them in this forum as we are not doctors. Cut branches make a lovely wreath for decoration and freshen the air inside.

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Germander leaves close up. CQuish photo

Leaves are dark green, tiny and have serrated edges giving a fine overall texture to the plant. Germander is in the mint family, but behaves well in the garden, not spreading much. It also is not liked by deer due to its scent, and insects and diseases rarely attack adding to its attributes. Prune before new growth starts in the spring.

-Carol Quish

groundnut August 13 2017

Groundnut flowers

“The brilliant poppy flaunts her head

Amidst the ripening grain,

And adds her voice to sell the song

That August’s here again.”

–  Helen Winslow

 

August means summer is heading for a subtle change. Evenings begin to get cooler, skies are less hazy, most birds are getting a break from chasing fledglings all over creation, and the sounds of crickets and katydids during the night have replaced the trilling of the tree frogs. Bats are seen more frequently now as many moths and other late summer night- flying insects are abundant. Trees and shrubs have ripening fruit, deer are eating acorns already and, to top it all off, we just had a solar eclipse. Now is a great time to get outside and see what is happening in the garden and in the wild.

female and male juvenile wood ducks Early August Airline Trail marsh Pamm Cooper photo

Juvenile wood ducks are on their own now

The tiger bee fly, Xenox tigrinis is a very large fly that can be seen flying about now. About the size of a quarter, this fly may fly low over lawns and can be mistaken for a wasp. It has large white markings at the end of its abdomen and they really stand out against the black color of the rest of the abdomen, resembling a bald faced hornet somewhat as it flies around, , apart from its size. Female tiger flies lay eggs near carpenter bee tunnels, and its larvae will eat the bee larvae that are developing within.

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Tiger bee fly

One of our larger spiders is the black and yellow orb weaver, Argiope aurantia. Commonly known as garden spiders, orb weavers are frequently found in gardens, meadows and fields. Their web has a zig-zag pattern at the end of a  thickened strip of silk that and may signal birds so that they see it and avoid flying through the web, thus saving the spider from major repair work. Who knows? Other creatures seem to miss that cue and end up as little morsels in the food “web”.

orb weaver spider

yellow and black orb weaver

Another orb weaver, the arrow spider (Micrantha sagittata), is much smaller the black and yellow one, and is one of only three Micrantha species found in North America. It has an interesting web composed on a rather permanent frame structure and then the orb section is built inside the frame at dawn every day. In the evening, the spider will consume the orb part of its web and have to start anew the next morning. The whys and wherefores of this behavior is one to be marveled at, if not at all understood by mere mortals.

Arrow spider Micrathena sagittata PAmm Cooper photo

Arrow spider

Butterflies are having a banner year- even giant swallowtails are being seen in northern Connecticut as of late. I just peeked inside the old stinging nettles leaf shelter of a red admiral butterfly caterpillar and found its chrysalis inside. One way to avoid predators is certainly to make oneself scarce. Monarchs, spicebush and tiger swallowtails and American ladies are abundant in numbers this year. Good plants for late season butterflies, especially migrators, are boneset, Joe-pyes, goldenrods, mountain mint, lantana, petunias, impatiens and bluebeard (Caryopteris). Mints and bluebeard are excellent for late summer pollinators as well. My gardens are humming with bee and butterfly activity right now as I have most of these plants in flower.

red admiral chrysalis inside nettle leaf shelter

Red admiral butterfly chrysalis inside a nettle leaf shelter

Venturing out where forbs and small shrubs abound, you may run across the groundnut, Apios americana a native perennial vine that right now is in flower. The sweet- scented flowers are wisteria- like in form, appearing in small clusters along the vine. Found climbing among small shrubs and perennials like dogwoods, goldenrods and ferns, this plant is sometimes only noticed because its flowers are so striking in both color and clustered among a green background form the plant derives its name from the edible tubers that were consumed by native Americans and early settlers.

Cardinal flowers are also in bloom along watercourses now, and their brilliant dark red blooms and rich nectar attract hummingbirds. Along with jewelweed, cardinal flower is a great source of food for these energetic little birds. If you wait long enough when these plants are flowering, a hummingbird or two should make an appearance.

cardinal flower in stream

cardinal flower

Giant silkworm moths are putting in a second appearance this year, meaning a second or partial second generation of caterpillars will soon hatch. Over the last three weeks, Polyphemus and Luna moths have been seen, and there are fourth instar Promethea caterpillars out. Since the giant silkworm caterpillars take so long to reach the pupal stage, they may run out of foliage as many of the trees they feed on may shed their leaves before they can form cocoons.

exhausted Polyphemus moth on leaf litter Pamm Cooper photo

Polyphemus moth

And be careful out there! This past weekend I found two saddleback slug moth caterpillars in two different areas of the state, both on foliage not far off the ground. Though small, these caterpillars have many urticating spines that can cause a sensation like being stabbed with hundreds of tiny red-hot hypodermic needles.

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Saddleback caterpillar

As we move into the end of summer, sunrises and sunsets should be more colorful as the skies get cooler and particles high in the atmosphere scatter the blue light to our west and east as the sun sets or rises. To the early bird, then, may you see a spectacular sunrise.  And to the observer at eventide, may you be rewarded with an equally breathtaking sunset.

August dawn GHills from 8 8-18-13

August dawn

 

Pamm Cooper          August 2017

 

 

 

After two summers of drought conditions it is great to see how well the vegetable garden is doing this year. The lack rain and the elevated temperatures of last summer meant that I was lugging the watering cans from the rain barrel to the garden every other day. This year, it has been less than once a week as Mother Nature has provided precipitation in abundance. The zucchini, summer squash, tomatoes, peppers, kale, Swiss chard, green beans, carrots, and beets are all living large.

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The first batch of ratatouille has already been enjoyed, a delicious blend of tomatoes, zucchini, summer squash and eggplant that is diced, tossed with olive oil and a pinch of salt, and roasted to perfection in the oven. The vegetables that provide the greatest depth of flavor in this recipe are the tomatoes and eggplant. These vegetables are found in the umami taste category (along with sweet, salty, sour, and bitter). Umami, by definition, is a Japanese word that means ‘pleasant, savory taste’. It is also known as glutamate and has been a part of the vernacular since 1985 which explains why it was not on any of the sense of taste diagrams that I saw in science class in the 70s.

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Foods that contain umami such as tomatoes, eggplant, spinach, celery, and mushrooms will all have their flavor improved by just a touch of salt (or fish sauce, which is also high in glutamate) making them great choices for anyone trying to reduce their sodium intake. I recently had a Thai dinner of a spicy eggplant dish that had such an incredibly savory taste due to the combination of the eggplant and the fish sauce that I ordered it twice that week.

In fact, eggplant is one of my favorite vegetables. It is used in so many cuisines around the world. I believe that my first exposure to eggplant was through my Italian heritage in the form of Eggplant Parmigiana, a staple of every holiday meal and a prime choice when ordering from Franklin Giant Grinder on Franklin Avenue in Hartford. Those breaded sliced rounds, fried in olive oil, baked in a tomato sauce, and covered in mozzarella cheese were umami with a capital U!

Fast forward to the 1990s and the exposure to so many more dishes that use eggplant, including vegan and vegetarian recipes where it is a good substitute for meat. In the Mid-east, baba ghanoush is eggplant that is roasted whole, scooped out when cool and mixed with tahini, garlic, and a little olive oil and eaten as a dip with vegetables or pita bread. The already mentioned ratatouille is a stewed dish that comes to us originally from Nice, France, where eggplant is known as aubergine. Eggplant can be pickled or made into chutneys in India or stuffed with rice, meat, or other fillings in the Caucasus.

One thing about eggplant that separates it from most other vegetables is that it is basically inedible when raw, having a very bitter taste and an astringent quality. Early cultivars required the slices to be salted, pressed, rinsed, and drained before they could be used in a recipe but modern cultivars such as the large purple variety have less bitterness.

The three varieties that I am trying this year are the classic plump purple ‘Black Beauty’, the green skin ‘Thai Long Green’, and the white skin ‘Caspar’. It would appear that we are not the only ones finding the eggplant interesting this year.

The first pests that I noticed in July were the eggs and larvae of the False potato beetle (Leptinotarsa juncta), often confused with its cousin the Colorado potato beetle, (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). The bright orange eggs which are found standing upright on the underside of the leaf are not as tightly packed together as the eggs of the squash bug generally are. It wasn’t until I looked at an enlarged view of the below image that I noticed that I had actually captured a larva emerging from an egg!

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The pale larvae will feed on the foliage of most Solanaceous plants for 21 days as they go through 4 instar stages and then drop to the soil to pupate.

After 10 to 15 days the adult beetle will emerge and lay eggs. There are usually two generations a summer in Connecticut.

Then there were the larvae of the Clavate tortoise beetle (Plagiometriona clavate), awesome masters of disguise, who use their own frass (poop) as a camouflage. The rear abdominal segment of the larva has a special fecal fork that allows the attachment of the dried fecal matter and holds it over the larva, hiding it effectively. Even if the frass is pulled back it will pull it over again.

These small, green larvae with their flattened bodies and fringe of white spikes did a bit of damage to the eggplant leaves, leaving them quite pockmarked.

A few more visitors are not as Solanaceous host-specific as the False potato beetle and the Clavate tortoise beetle. The 14-spotted lady beetle (Propyleae quatuordecimpuctata) has been in North America since it came to Ontario by way of Europe in the 60s. It can out-consume the native North American lady beetle species, eating insect pests such as aphids, mites, and scale, landing it on the Invasive Species Compendium list.  Every garden needs pollinators and the bees love the big purple blooms of the eggplant.

This grasshopper nymph posed on an eggplant leaf, casting a very artful shadow. Grasshoppers are not picky eaters and can be found on every plant in the garden although squash and tomatoes are their least favorite. This one may have just been taking advantage of a bit of August sunshine. Can’t say that I blame it!

Susan Pelton

 

Slime mold. It sounds like something on an unwashed ghostbusters uniform. Slime molds don’t always look slimy or moldy though.  It depends on what kind they are. One thing all the slime molds have in common is that they thrive in moist environments. This year, Connecticut has experienced frequent and abundant rainfall so the slime molds are popping up in landscapes and gardens.  I’ve heard about a bright pink one on mulch but haven’t seen it so here’s a pic from the internet. From: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=397266

So what is a slime mold?  For quite a long time, they were classified with the fungi. They’re not closely related to the fungi, though, and are now classed in the kingdom Protista. There are a few different kinds of unrelated organisms commonly called slime molds.  Some are composed of only a single cell while others are multicellular. They are able to produce spores that allow for dispersal and survival of unfavorable conditions. They feed on dead organic matter (helping out with decomposition) or sometimes yeast, bacteria, or fungi.

When conditions are right, many slime mold cells may congregate together, forming visible growths on surfaces of plants, decaying logs, or soil surfaces.  A few interesting examples of slime molds have come across my desk this season and here they are:

Yellow or white slime mold can appear in a very short time on the blades of turfgrasses. If you’re unfamiliar with this, it can look like a dreadful disease with the potential to wipe out your lawn.  In fact, once the surface dries out, spores in the masses will be dispersed and there will be no remaining evidence of the slime mold. No harm done.

The common fungus that grows on bark mulch and is aptly named ‘dog vomit slime mold’ or ‘dog vomit fungus’ (Fuligo septica). This type of slime mold, even though it’s pretty large, is only a single cell with many nuclei.  When it pops up in gardens on mulch, it does look pretty disgusting and many inquiries are about how to get rid of it. You can’t. It’s in the soil below the mulch as well is in it.  But, you can remove the unsightly growth when it appears.  It is not harmful to plants.  More info on this slime mold can be found at http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/june99.html.  Photo below from: By Siga – Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2690264

And, finally, the most interesting slime mold of the season so far: chocolate tube slime mold (Stemonitis sp.). This perfectly named slime mold was found growing on an old section of a pine trunk being used to support a planter.  Enjoy, then go get yourself some chocolate since it’s now on your mind! UConn photos.

By J. Allen