Last week’s blog entry by Dawn Pettinelli was devoted to National Pollinators Week, stressing the importance of pollinators and their ecosystems. Between the vegetable garden, the flower beds, and the hanging baskets there is no lack of bright, beautiful flowers in our yard that have bees, butterflies, and other insects flying among them.

2012-08-19_12-19-38_209

I recently walked past a male Winterberry, Ilex verticillata, in my yard. As it doesn’t have very showy flowers or unusual foliage it has been relegated to an inconspicuous location on the side of the house where it is still in proximity of the female winterberry. However, as I strolled past it en route to the window boxes at the front of the house, something caught my attention.

The small white flower petals were dropping in such large numbers that it looked like snow falling to the ground. Looking at the bush I saw that there was a flurry of activity going on among the leaves and  blossoms. The number of bees and other insects visiting the tiny flowers was awesome.

Bumblebee on the Male WinterberryHoneybee on the Male Winterberry

The drupes of the female Winterberry are an important food source for birds and can persist on the branches long into winter. It is a deciduous plant and therefore it is even more striking to see the bright red berries against a fresh snowfall.

Female Winterberry Drupes

I then started to look at some of the other plants in our yard that had been selected more for their utility or  foliage than for their blossoms. There are three different varieties of Heuchera that I chose for their foliage which ranges from lime yellow to beautiful sunset colors to dark, almost purple leaves. I almost forget that they will produce the delicate stalks and tiny bell-shaped flowers that give it its common name of Coral bells. The main axis of Heuchera have an indeterminate growth that is known as thyrse. The native Americans used some species of Heuchera medicinally as an anti-inflammatory or a pain killer.

HeucheraHeuchers FlowerHeuchera Flower Close-upHeuchera 2

The dwarf Yaupon Holly, Ilex vomitoria, is also in bloom right now with the most delicate white flowers. The 4-petaled, ¼”  tiny flowers have an almost extra-terrestrial look to them. This plant will also produce small red drupes that will be eaten and dispersed by the birds. Raccoon and skunks will also consume the berries and deer will eat the foliage and twigs. The Native Americans brewed a tea from the leaves of this plant which the Europeans mistakenly believed could cause vomiting thereby erroneously giving it its Latin name.

Yaupon Holly Flower

Joe-pye weed, Eupatorium purpureum, has great striking deep reddish-purple stems that lead to red-veined leaves but I love when its tiny flowers make their appearance late in the season. A Native American healer whose name was Jopi used these plants to treat ailments and cure fevers and they became known as Joe-Pye Weed.

Joe-Pye Weed

And one last example of a native shrub that has flowers that are often overlooked is the American willow, Salix discolor, more commonly known as the pusssy willow. We, like so many others, cut stems loaded with catkins to bring indoors in the early spring. Our plant is a male and the small furry catkins develop into fluffy yellow bunches of minute flowers. As with so many other plants that are indigenous to New England the pussy willow was also used by the native Americans as a painkiller

Pussy Willow Catkins         Male Pussy Willow Flowers


There are so many native shrubs that bring diversity to our environments whether by adding beautiful colors to our landscapes in all of the seasons or by providing the pollen and nectar that is so necessary to the bees and other pollinators. Visit the Alternatives for Invasive Ornamental Plant Species site from the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station and the Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group for a list of some great native plants.

Susan Pelton

(all images by Susan Pelton)

In case you have not heard, Pollinator Partnership (www.pollinator.org), a nonprofit “dedicated exclusively to the protection and promotion of pollinators and their ecosystems” has a signature initiative, National Pollinator Week, which was started in 2007. Their mission is to promote the health of pollinators through conservation, education and research. The Pollinator Partnership is also proud to announce that June 15-21, 2015 has been designated National Pollinator Week by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

First, think about who our pollinators are – European honey bees, native bees, butterflies, birds, bats, beetles, moths and other animals. There are more than 200,000 species of animals that can pollinate plants. All of these animals transfer pollen from one flower to another in their quest for nectar and pollen. More than 1000 crops depend on these animals for pollination in order to produce the food, spices, beverages, medicines and fiber we rely on. We have not only seen a drastic decline in managed honeybees over the past decade or so but also a reduction in native pollinators as lands supporting native plants are turned into agricultural monocultures, industrial zones, parking lots, residences with large lawn areas and little plant diversity and other uses that do not encourage the growth of native plants. The decline of both managed and native pollinators has also been linked to pesticide use.

Bumble bee on marigold by dmp

Bumble bee on marigold by dmp

 Gardeners and other concerned citizens can help reverse this trend. A number of conservation and gardening organizations got together and formed the National Pollinator Garden Network which has just launched a new nationwide campaign – the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge.

poll challenge

The organizations behind this campaign are hoping for one million pollinator gardens by the end of 2016. Becoming a supporter of this campaign requires two steps. Planting a pollinator garden and registering it. Do note that there are no size requirements for your pollinator garden. They can range from a single window box to a farm to a whole college campus.

Step one does require a little thought and planning. To start with, what kinds of plants should be grown in a pollinator garden? Ideally, there should be native plants to support native pollinators because these plants and animals evolved over time and often have specific roles to fulfill. The plants in the garden should not only support adult pollinators like bees, butterflies and moths but, in the case of butterflies and moths, their larval or caterpillar stage as well. This may require a little research but there are plenty of good websites and books out there. The problem with some non-native plants is that they may not produce enough nectar or pollen to support a native pollinator species or, in the case of larvae, may be unpalatable. The Xerces Society has a pollinator plant list that one can begin with:  http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/NortheastPlantList_web.pdf

Butterfly on rudbeckia by dmp

Butterfly on rudbeckia by dmp

This does bring into question ‘nativars’. For those not familiar with this term, it refers to a cultivated variety of a native species. So if, for instance, if a New England aster has a particularly nice color or growth form or resistance to an insect or disease, it might be vegetatively propagated and sold, and would then be known as a nativar. But is it’s pollen as nutritious to our native bee species as the original native plant’s? Sometimes the answer is yes, sometimes no and sometimes no one knows. So much about these interactions are yet unknown so it would be great if more research would be done in this area.

My hope is that providing enough variety in my garden will balance out the effects of planting some non-natives and some nativars. The diversity card seems to be working as I have all sorts of native bees, flies, butterflies and even ruby-throated hummingbirds and bats (although I wish the bats would stay out of the house!).

If you are planning on taking up this challenge, then choose plants that provide nectar, pollen and food for moth and butterfly larvae. So don’t plant those pollen-less sunflowers because, although they are neater as cut flowers, they are useless to pollinators, not to mention goldfinches. Single or semi-double flowers are more attractive to pollinators than doubles because they produce more pollen.

Male green bottle fly on chocolate daisy by dmp

Male green bottle fly on chocolate daisy by dmp

Try for continuous bloom from early spring (crocus) through late fall (single, hardy mums). Even though these two plants are not native, they are mobbed by pollinators at the beginning and end of each gardening season in my gardens.

Site your container planting or garden in full sun and if located in an exposed windy site, try and shelter it from persistent winds by locating it next to a building, large shrub or other windbreak. Pollinators need water so set out a bird bath, puddle rock or even a more elaborate fountain or pond so they can access it.

Most importantly, keep an eye on your plants and notice if bees and other pollinators are visiting them. If so, register your site. If not, switch out some of the plants for more native ones and see what happens.

If you are interested in learning about pollinators and more, UConn Extension will be hosting Bug Week from July 20-25, 2015. There will be events, interactive activities, and programs that you can do on your own. Browse our site, and if you have questions email us at bugweek@uconn.edu or call 860-486-9228.

Bees congregating on dahlia towards nightfall by dmp

Bees congregating on dahlia towards nightfall by dmp

Whoever came up with that adage, “The only good bug is a dead bug” most certainly did not understand man’s reliance on insects. Get to know them! Appreciate them – or give up coffee and chocolate, for without pollinating insects we would most certainly not get to experience these two treats.

Good gardening!

Dawn

UConn Plant Database photo of young yellowwood tree.

UConn Plant Database photo of young yellowwood tree.

Yellowwood in full bloom, photo from uky.edu

Yellowwood in full bloom, photo from uky.edu

 

Trees with large, showy flowers always attract attention and a closer look. Yellowwood is one such tree not commonly seen here in Connecticut. I am lucky enough to work on the UConn Storrs campus where many more unusual trees are planted and growing well. Behind the W.B. Young Building which houses Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, on the lawn as you exit the south end of the parking lot, is a glorious Yellowwood tree displaying its large, white flowers hanging down like wisteria clusters. As the flowers age, the petals are gently dropped speckling the lawn and mulch white.

 

Yellowwood flower. C. Quish Photo

Yellowwood flower. C. Quish Photo

Cladrastis kentukea is the Latin name for Yellowwood, referring to its native range in the south-east portion of the United States, mainly Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina. It is hardy here in Connecticut, as the one planted on campus proves. Research shows it is hardy to zone 4. Locate in full sun and well-drained soil to ensure success with this tree.  It is also sometimes known as Virgilia. The common name of yellowwood comes from the color of the heartwood of the tree. It has a yellow hued wood used for decorative wood working and gun stocks. The color can be extracted from the root to be used as a dye.

V-shaped form and rounded crown of Yellowwood tree. Photo by C. Quish

V-shaped form and rounded crown of Yellowwood tree. Photo by C. Quish

Yellowwood is a medium-sized tree with a uniform, rounded shape suitable for use as a specimen planting or a lawn tree. It makes a great focal point providing great shape, a flowering period and superb interesting branch shape, and interesting bark. The bark is starts out with soft yellow/green twigs, which change to a reddish-brown and finally to a smooth grey to brown at maturity, It has a habit of setting horizontal branches below six feet adding to the structural interest of the tree when it is leafless. The leaves turn from green to clear yellow, orange and gold during the fall.

Yellowwood wood, UConn plant database

Yellowwood wood, UConn plant database

Fall color, UConn Plant database photo

Fall color, UConn Plant database photo

Yellowwood bark, uconn database

Yellowwood bark, uconn database

-Carol Quish

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pinxterflower Native Azalea blooming in late May in Northern Connecticut

Pinxter flower Native Azalea blooming in late May in Northern Connecticut

“What is one to say about June, the time of perfect young summer, the fulfillment of the promise of the earlier months, and with as yet no sign to remind one that its fresh young beauty will ever fade.”
– Gertrude Jekyll, On Gardening

My spirit always gets a jolt of energy and enthusiasm when green again is the prevailing color in the landscape, sprinkled here and there with the hues of native flowers. Along with the color reversal- the drabness of winter transformed to the vitality of new growth- comes the corresponding fauna that completes the composition of the landscape. Together, it is a better symphony than even Mozart could compose. For good or bad, nature has its own comprehensive coordination of flora and fauna, and all play the perfect instrument in the classical themes of nature. Phenology is a reliable system of determining what is happening and where to look for it.

This spring may have been late to start, plant development being 10 to 15 days behind “ normal”. But once plants started to green up, animals, birds and insects appeared on schedule right behind them. Last week, mantids emerged from their egg cases which normally is an event of mid- May rather than late May. But they are on a timetable that is in harmony with a calendar that is unrelated to the one we go by, and as such they can never be ‘ late”.

Chipping sparrows just hatched Late May

Chipping sparrows just hatched Late May

Late May is the time of lady slippers, columbine, tulip tree flowers and the star grasses. June follows with the milkweeds, the first of which is usually the whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata), which is found in dry soils often near woodland edges in a little shade. The Pinxter azalea (Rhododendron periclymenoides) can flower from early May to early June depending on location here in Connecticut. Named for the European Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), Pinxter has honeysuckle-like flowers that are fragrant and appear in early spring, generally before the leaves appear. Look for these near the upland edges of ponds and streams.

Native Columbine

Native Columbine

This time of year gray tree frogs can be found along the ground and on low shrubs looking for mates. These frogs sing answering choruses during the day from perches in trees and come down during the night to feed on insects and other morsels. They may be endangered by mowing lawns as they are not exactly swift to respond to dangers while in the courting mode. Box turtles often appear in open areas during the day following rains. Many a box turtle leaving its forest home for a day has been spared from death when crossing the roads by alert and kindly motorists.

gray tree frog saved from the mower June 3 2015

Gray tree frog saved from a bad mowing experience on June 3 2015

Leaf feeding beetles are in full force now, including some of the more. Check native viburnum and dogwood for the attractively marked calligrapha beetles that feed exclusively on these trees and shrubs. Not as worrisome as the viburnum leaf beetles and the dogwood sawflies, these beetles usually occur in small numbers and are seldom pests. Potato beetles are laying eggs as we speak, so be on the alert for rows of yellow eggs on potato and related plants.

3-lined potato beetle laying eggs on nightshade June 3, 2015

3-lined potato beetle laying eggs on nightshade June 3, 2015

The colorful lily leaf beetle has already laid eggs, and its larvae are active now. On a good note, assassin bugs and predatory plant bugs are currently on the prowl and also should be laying eggs. Lady beetle larvae are also active now. So with mantids out and with the other predatory insects active in the landscape, aphids and other pests may be taken out to some degree. Pine sawyer adults are also active now and they are sometimes attracted to oil based stains applied to decks and railings.

Viburnum calligrapha beetle

Viburnum calligrapha beetle

Dogwood calligrapha beetle

Dogwood calligrapha beetle

If you have catbirds and cardinals living nearby, you may want to add a birdbath to your landscape. Catbirds especially enjoy a good bath morning and evening. Make sure to put the birdbath where afternoon sun will not cause the water to get too hot. Catbirds in particular take objection to a hot bath and will let you know the water needs changing. My dad had catbirds for years that would mew loudly after testing the water with their feet and found it was too hot for their taste. So he would put fresh water in and, within seconds, the birds were having a cool, afternoon bath.

Busy birdbath

Busy birdbath

Enjoy what remains of this spring. Remember to water any recently planted trees, shrubs and other plants if drought conditions return. And try not to get annoyed if house wrens living nearby break the morning peace with their loud trilling and chirring voices. They probably have young nearby and are celebrating that soon their nestlings will become fledglings, and in due time they will be on their own.

Pamm Cooper                       All photos copyright 2015 by Pamm Cooper

Fresh-picked strawberries

We moved into our home in December of 1996 and by June of ’97 I had broken through the sod, tilled the soil, fenced in an area, and planted a new garden. One of the first additions to that garden was a strawberry bed. Even though it took up ¼ of the space and only produced fruit during June I was always happy to have it there. Over the ensuing years the plants have, at various times, bloomed, bore fruit, sent out runners for daughter plants, and died. Three years ago I renovated the plants and moved them to a different area within the garden. This year they started to bloom around Mother’s Day and there were already a few signs of small green berries within a week. The weather during that time was unseasonably warm with a few days of temperatures close to 90° By May 15th the rainfall for Connecticut was already 1.74” below normal. Like most fruiting plants strawberries require 1” of water per week during fruit set and the growing period. Most years this is not an issue but this season has required many trips to the slowly depleting rain barrel. At least it has been warm. Some years a soggy, cold spring has led to a very small harvest. Also, temperatures that dip into the 25-35° range require covering the plants as they are susceptible to frost damage. If you have pushed their winter mulch to the side you can just bring it back over the plants should there be a frost warning.

Early spring strawberry crown

There are three types of strawberries that are generally available for the home gardener: June bearing, everbearing and day neutral. June bearing, as their name suggest, produce fruit during a 2-3 week period in June although there are early, mid and late season varieties. Everbearing strawberries have three periods of flower and fruit production during spring, summer and fall.  For better productivity and fruit quality choose day neutral over everbearing. Day neutral strawberries produce fruit throughout the growing season with few runners. If your space is limited, the soil quality is poor, or you like to plant in containers or beds, then day neutral is a good choice. Day neutral strawberries are often grown as annuals and replanted each spring. If you choose to allow the beds to carry over to the next year you may see that the yields will decline.

Strawberry flower and green berry

Strawberries prefer well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They need full sun. Do not plant strawberries in an area that has had solanaceous crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant or peppers within the previous four years as non-host specific Verticillium root rot fungus also affects strawberries. Another soil-borne fungus that affects strawberries is Phytophthora fragariae (Red stele). Phytophthora fragariae is a very persistent fungus and can survive for up to 17 years once it has become established, even if no strawberries are grown during that time. Even varieties that are listed as resistant may succumb if planted in an area that has had a prior infection. Black root rot is another disease brought on by fungi, nematodes and environmental factors. Avoiding areas that become water-logged is very important when growing strawberries.

Berries from the garden

After you have enjoyed the fruit from June bearing varieties the plants should be renovated. This is the part that makes me cringe. Mow the strawberry plants to a height of 1 ½” above the crowns! It seems to go against every gardening intuition that I possess. Then fertilize with a balanced fertilizer. You may also need to narrow the plant rows to 10-12” and thin out plants that do not look healthy. Spread 1/2” of soil over all but do not bury the crowns. Be sure to continue watering through the fall.

Canned strawberry jam

Strawberries may require a bit of work but they are definitely worth the effort. Biting into a fresh-picked, still warm from the sun, strawberry is a bit of heaven. And then ladling lightly sugared berries over a biscuit with whipped cream? Yum. Or baking them into a crisp accompanied by rhubarb also fresh from the garden? So good. And of course, it doesn’t get any better than cooking them into preserves and hot water bath canning them so that they can be enjoyed all winter long. As of this week I had one 12 oz. jar left from last year’s batch. Now that I can see this year’s crop coming I popped the seal, put a nice spoonful on some cottage cheese and remembered all the reasons that I have strawberries in the garden.

The last of the jam!

Article and all images by Susan Pelton

The common blue violet (Viola sororia), also known as common meadow violet, purple violet, woolly blue violet, or wood violet, is a native perennial plant found throughout eastern North America. Some references give woolly blue violet (a variety with fuzzy leaves) its own species name but the most common status seems to be a single species with high variability. This little spring wildflower blooms from April through June and occurs naturally in moist meadows, woodland edges and along roads. It prefers moist, somewhat shady sites but once established it can thrive in dry and less favorable conditions and is often a problematic weed in turfgrass and landscapes.

J. Allen photo

J. Allen photo

At 3-8 inches tall, it is low growing with leaves and flowers on petioles originating from the root, not from a stem. Reproduction is via rhizomes and seed, both allowing spread and persistence in lawns and gardens. The most prevalent flower color is purple to blue but occasionally flowers may be pale purple, gray or white.

Flowers consist of five petals with two upper, two lateral and one lower petal. The lower petal has striking stripes that lead from its edge to the center of the flower and this design helps guide pollinators to the nectar within.   The color and scent of the flowers aid in attracting pollinators as well. Violets flower early in the season when pollinator activity may not be reliable so they produce a second type, a cleistogamous flower that appears lower to the ground and often later in the season. These are self-pollinating

Photo: Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org

Photo: Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org

Seed capsule.  Photo credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_(plant)

Seed capsule. Photo credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_(plant)

Historically, violets have been used for both food and medicine. Medicinal uses have included treatment of the common cold, headache, cough, sore throat and constipation. Nutritionally, a half cup of violet leaves are reported to contain as much vitamin C as three oranges. Both flowers and leaves are edible. Some violet species have a sweeter flavor and a stronger aroma that make them a nice garnish or addition to sweet dishes while others have a mild pea-like flavor and blend well in savory recipes. Some recipes for using violets are available on the American Violet Society website, including this one for crystallized viola.

CAUTIONS:

  • Never use plants for food unless you are 100% certain that you’ve identified the plant correctly.
  • African violets are NOT related to these plants and are NOT edible.
  • Do not use plants that may have been treated with any kind of chemicals/pesticides including those in lawns, roadsides, etc. if history of the site is unknown.

There is a beautiful ‘language of flowers’ in which a particular flower can carry a special meaning or message. The message associated with a particular flower, which may be specific to color, can vary by region or reference. In North America (according to one reference), the violet means modesty and blue violets in particular can mean watchfulness or faithfulness or may send the message ‘I’ll always be true”. More on the language of flowers and a list of many for North America can be found here.

So far, I’ve just mentioned in passing the fact that perennial violets can become a weed problem in turfgrass and landscapes. If you’re interested in what to do about this plant as a weed, there is great information here from Purdue University.

  1. Allen

 

Just last week, as I peered into my tiger lily bed, a splash of red caught my eye. Even though I squashed every lily leaf beetle and larvae I found last year, some had apparently been missed and they overwintered to once more feast upon my lilies. The lily leaf beetle is native to Europe and is believed to have entered North America through plant shipments to Canada in the 1940’s. It was first confirmed in New England in 1999, when adult beetles were found in Boston. The bright red adults and rusty colored larvae have a voracious appetite for all kinds of true lilies – Asiatic, Trumpet, Tiger, Martagon, Oriental, Turk’s Cap, etc. as well as Fritillaria (Crown Imperials – although mine got a wilt and died back before the beetles came out) and our native Solomon seal (Polygonatum biflorum). Daylilies, which are not true lilies but instead in the Hemerocallis genus, are not affected. Occasionally lily leaf beetles are said to feed, but not reproduce, on hostas but this has not been a problem with the variegated ones in my gardens.

Red lily leaf beetles on tiger lilies, DMP

Red lily leaf beetles on tiger lilies, DMP

Adult, bright red lily leaf beetles overwinter in mulch and litter and emerge in the spring shortly after lilies begin to pop up and expand their foliage. The adults will feed on the leaves and flowers, mate and then females can lay more than 250 eggs on the undersides of lily leaves. The eggs will hatch in 8 days or so and then the larva will also start feeding on the leaves. To make matters worse, the larvae cover themselves with their own excrement. This is likely a defense mechanism to avoid being picked off as a menu item by birds and other predators. However, it makes squishing them unpleasant so while I will pick off beetles by hand, I admit that I use gloves for the larvae. If left to their own devices, the larvae will pupate, adults will emerge late summer and feed on any lilies left, drop to the ground to overwinter and come back to start this voracious cycle again next spring.

Lily Leaf Beetle, Donna Ellis, UConn

Lily Leaf Beetle, Donna Ellis, UConn

What’s a lily loving gardener to do??? Well, if you are a Connecticut resident join our control study!

Researchers at UConn are conducting a lily leaf beetle biological control project during the summer of 2015.  If you grow lilies in Connecticut, have a minimum of 12 plants in the lily family (Oriental lilies, Asiatic lilies, Turk’s Cap lilies, or Fritillaria) in your garden, and have lily leaf beetles feeding on them, we would like your help.  We will be introducing two species of beneficial parasitic wasps in June and would like to collect lily leaf beetle larvae from June through August. The parasitoid wasps attack lily leaf beetle larvae and over time these natural enemies will disperse from release sites and begin to spread through the state to reduce populations of lily leaf beetles.  The wasps were first introduced in Connecticut in 2012 and have also been released in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island, where they are establishing and starting to impact lily leaf beetle populations.  Please contact Gail Reynolds, Middlesex County Master Gardener Coordinator (gail.reynolds@uconn.edu; phone 860-345-5234) if you would like to participate in the research project.

Gail wants you to know that “the parasitoid wasps are very tiny, non-social, stingless wasps and that the wasps are not a panacea that will destroy the lily leaf beetles quickly. We encourage gardeners to tolerate the beetles and the (yucky) larvae so that we can collect and inspect them.  If they spray an insecticide or pick off the adults/larvae, then we can’t ascertain if the wasps are doing their thing.  We could potentially have had more parasitism occurring but we can’t confirm if the larvae are removed and killed without being examined.”

Lily Leaf Beetle Larva, Donna Ellis, UConn

Lily Leaf Beetle Larva, Donna Ellis, UConn

Donna Ellis, UConn Senior Cooperative Extension Educator and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program Coordinator, who is coordinating this research project wants you to know that “The lily leaf beetle biological control project, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, began in CT in 2012 with the release of two species of beneficial parasitoid wasps that will help reduce lily leaf beetle populations. The releases will continue this year, and Gail is looking for gardens throughout Connecticut. The releases have been made in all counties. To date, there has been one confirmed site where a parasitized lily leaf beetle larva was collected (New Haven County) in 2013. With additional numbers of beneficial wasps introduced each year in the state and the establishment of these biological control agents, we anticipate an increase in the number of parasitized lily leaf beetle larvae in the near future.”

LLB Parasitoid wasp release, created by Gail Reynolds, UConn

LLB Parasitoid wasp release, created by Gail Reynolds, UConn

Gail will visit potential gardens to assess the lily, and lily leaf beetle populations, and she will release the parasitoid wasps, which are reared and shipped to CT from the University of Rhode Island (URI). Gail will also be doing most of the lily leaf beetle larval collections, to ship to URI where they will be examined to determine whether they are parasitized.  During the summer, Gail and Donna will receive training at URI so that we can examine the larvae at UConn.

Gail took the lead in creating a new fact sheet on lily leaf beetle biological control in Connecticut which can be found on the UConn IPM website: http://ipm.uconn.edu/documents/raw2/html/569.php?aid=569

Good gardening to you all!

Dawn

Dawn (with input this week from Donna Ellis and Gail Reynolds, UConn PSLA & Extension)

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