Flowering bulbs


In June I shared a visit to the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center in Hartford, CT with you. Last week an outing took me to another beautiful garden site, Elizabeth Park, with three generations of ladies that included a dear friend, her mother, and my future daughter-in-law, Jamie. This was Jamie’s first encounter with Elizabeth Park as she is a recent transplant to the area from Long Island. It couldn’t have been a nicer day as the weather was warm but not hot with just enough cloud cover to allow us to walk about quite comfortably.

Elizabeth Park is of seven major parks that ring the city limits of Hartford, Connecticut and were created to benefit all of the citizens. Bushnell Park led the way in 1854 followed by Colt Park, Goodwin Park, Keeney Park, Pope Park, Riverside Park, and of course, Elizabeth Park by 1895. The lands for these parks were attained through purchase or bequest. Such is the case for Elizabeth Park which was bequeathed to the City of Hartford upon the death of Charles M. Pond in 1894. During his life, Charles Pond had acquired 90 acres that were bordered by Prospect Avenue on the east and Asylum Avenue on the north. His only request was that the park be named for his deceased wife Elizabeth who loved the flowers and many gardens around their vast estate. The site of the current rose garden was their nursery. Charles also left a very generous $100,000 fund for the ongoing care of the grounds, an amount roughly equal to $2.8 million today.

 

The original landscaping for Elizabeth Park was done by the sons of Frederick Law Olmsted as he had retired in 1895. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., and John Charles Olmsted followed in their famous and prolific father’s design footprints. The park now encompasses 101.45 acres and includes 12 different gardens, 4 greenhouses, 2 gazebos, 2 bridges, and a pond among various other outbuildings, sports fields, tracks, and playgrounds.

Annual bed 2

The day of our visit we saw people strolling the grounds, bikers and runners on the paths and roads, and dog-walkers that included 2 Portuguese water dogs that were enjoying a cool swim in the pond! Our daughter attended one of the many weddings that take place in the Rose Garden each year and we have been to one of the fun outdoor concerts that are held during the summer.

full garden

But the big draw always remains the flowers. The Rose Garden was the first municipal rose garden in the United States and is the third largest with well over 15,000 roses in 475 beds. If you think that it’s difficult to take care of your flower beds then just imagine the number of hours that it takes to care for 2½ acres of roses! The day of our visit the gardeners were trimming the arbors that line the 8 paths to the main gazebo, known as the Rustic Summer House, as those roses bloom mid-June to late July. They actually remove the clips that hold the trailing vines on the arbors, unwind them, trim them, and reattach each one. It seems quite a laborious process but the gardeners just worked steadily and systematically.

It was impossible to take in all of the roses that were still in bloom, many of which will continue to bloom into the fall. Each new variety was as beautiful as the next as these images show.

But the roses aren’t the only beautiful blooms at Elizabeth Park. The Annual Garden is planted in early June as the 10,000 tulips that were planted in the fall die back. Those bulbs are pulled out as they don’t always re-bloom but in their place is a circular annual garden with crescent-shaped beds of plants that were started from seed in the greenhouses. Some of our favorites included the sunflowers, Helianthus annuus, cleome, Cleome, and heliotrope, Heliotropium.

And Zinnias! Lots and lots of zinnias!

Walking from the greenhouses past the Annual Garden you come to the Perennial Garden. In existence since 1914, the Perennial Garden is an herbaceous delight of 8 large beds bordered by Japanese yew. The Japanese anemones, Anemone hupehensis var. japonica, also known as thimbleweed, were standouts with their delicate pink blooms above the purple stems.

A summersweet bush, Clethra alnifolia, with its upright panicles of white and pink were very attractive to the dozens of pollinators that seemed to be everywhere, including on the hydrangea, Hydrangea paniculata, the coneflowers, Echinacea, and the blue shrimp plant, Cerinthe major.

Other beautiful areas include the Horticultural gardens where herb beds, oleander (Nerium oleander), and giant castor bean (Ricinus communis) plants grow side-by-side.

The Julian and Edith Eddy Rock Garden is a shady and peacefully contemplative area with the spicy anise aroma of agastache (Agastache foeniculum).

Closer to the pond are the Charlie Ortiz Hosta Garden and of course, the renowned Pond House. I always thought that it was thus named due to its proximity to the Laurel Pond, but no, it is named for the Ponds.

The area surrounding the Pond House is worth a visit in and of itself just to encounter the quirky surprises that are around each corner, such as the stone face planter that peeks out of a slightly ajar door and the gravity-defying terra-cotta planters. The Pond House has a working kitchen garden that is full of herbs and vegetables that are used by the café where we enjoyed a delicious and relaxed lunch that gave us the break that we needed to head out to the gardens once again.

As you can imagine, it takes a lot of work and money to sustain something as large as Elizabeth Park. In fact, in the 1970s, the City of Hartford had decided to plow the park under due to the expense of keeping it up. Fortunately, a group of volunteers formed the Friends of Elizabeth Park in 1977 and the Elizabeth Park Conservancy is still very instrumental in working with the City of Hartford to keep the park free and open to the public. If you are 18 years of age or older then you can volunteer to help in the maintenance of the park, just check out this link, Volunteer. Should you want to learn more about the history of Elizabeth Park there will be a free tour on Saturday, September 14th, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. starting at the flagpole outside of the green Cottage.

Susan Pelton

All images by S. Pelton, UConn, 2019

One of the best things about spring is seeing all of the new varieties of plants that appear in gardening magazines, on websites, and at nurseries. One of the bad things is realizing that you may not have room for any more new perennials in your yard! Fortunately for me, both my daughter Hannah and my future daughter-in-law Jamie share my love of plants and are more than willing to accept any donations.  Hannah’s home does have lovely established areas but we can always find a nook for another flowering plant.

Lets-Dance-Diva-Hydrangea-compressor__37886.1517166509Three years ago I gave Hannah a lovely hydrangea, ‘Let’s Dance’, in honor of her upcoming wedding. This variety of Hydrangea macrophylla bears beautiful, pale pink lace-cap flower heads where an outer ring of open florets encircles a center of tiny florets. We planted it into a large oak barrel tub that had to weigh in at 25 lbs. and placed it near her front walk where many other plants in various size containers also had residence. But one night, quite unexpectedly, the hydrangea and its tub mysteriously disappeared! I can’t imagine that someone thought that we were getting rid of it but we can only hope that it went to a happy home.

Hannah’s yard has that fairy garden-like feel; it is a snug, L-shaped yard that is surrounded by a sufficiently aged, unfinished fence where all manner of trees and shrubs grow.

Although the side of the yard that runs along her 1920s home is in the sun for a good part of the day, most of the yard is in some level of shade for most of the day. Patches of phlox, bellwort, and vinca share dappled sun along with heuchera and bleeding heart in the shade of the dogwood and Japanese maple.

Primrose makes an appearance at the base of the dogwood.

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Her ‘front yard’ consists of a 4’ by 8’ bed between the sidewalk and her porch and another 6” by 15’ wide swath that runs along the fence, both of which receive very little direct sunlight.

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It becomes quite apparent as the daffodils in the yards on the other side of the street bloom a week or two earlier. That front fence is a great place for hanging bags of impatiens and trailing ivy that don’t mind being in shade for most of the day. Columbine, painted fern, and a variety of tulips have also naturalized along that area.

Selecting herbaceous plants, trees, and shrubs that do well in so much shade just takes a bit of forethought; there are many species that love to be in a woodland setting.  The term ‘shade’ itself can be confusing. Is it shade? Partial shade?  Part sun?  Full shade? Morning or afternoon shade? Partial sun means a minimum of 4 hours of sunlight a day while partial shade is 3-6 hours of morning or late day sun with coverage during the hottest and brightest times of the day.  Many hydrangea will bear partial to full shade and the climbing hydrangea that has taken over her back steps is proof of that.

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Filtered sun, similar to partial shade, is great for woodland or under-story plants. Bear in mind that this can change over the course of the season as trees leaf out to a denser canopy and create more shade. Study the light in your yard throughout the growing season to determine the light situation. Shade plants may also like a moister soil that emulates the rich, humus environment of a forest floor.

Deep shade, also called full shade, does not mean a complete lack of sunlight. Think of the areas beneath evergreens or the northern side of a home. These areas will receive 3 hours or less of sunlight per day with little reflected or indirect light. We have just such a spot on the northern side of our home. The early morning is when this area receives its daily dose of somewhat dappled sunlight but from 9:00 a.m. on it is in full shade.

The plants that thrive in this area in our yard include clematis, hosta, astilbe, forget-me-not, and more Solomon’s seal. These beds are also where toadflax, lily-of-the-valley, and anemone are happy.

Shade tolerant plants may have thinner leaves that are more sensitive to light and perform photosynthesis at lower light levels. Over-exposure to sunlight can cause leaf margins to scorch, this sometimes can happen when a larger, shade-producing tree is removed and plants are suddenly exposed to more light than they are accustomed to receiving. Additionally, plants that are placed to receive less sunlight than they fully require may thrive but will often produce fewer blooms.

There are many varieties of shade perennials and annuals that can fill in a small space or a large bed, just visit a local nursery and take a stroll through their selection to find one (or two or three!) that catch your fancy.

Susan Pelton (all images by S. Pelton)

 

 

forsythia

The earth is continuing to awake this week, wide-eyed and full of vigor. The most obvious, in-your-face sign is the bright and intense yellow flowers of forsythia popping up and out of landscapes and yards. There is nothing subtle about forsythia. It is loud and screaming to be seen. A designing friend once called it the “spring vomit defiling the landscape.”  Another bit of sage wisdom on color theory about yellow was offered from a quilt teacher, “A little yellow goes a long way.” But I think forsythia’s splash is just what is needed after months of grey and browns of winter, especially a winter without the white of snow cover.  Forsythia shocks us out of the winter doldrums and seems to waken all the other flowers.

forsthyia in the woods

 

Forsythias bloom on wood grown in the previous year. Prune forsythia the spring immediately after flowering. Flower buds develop during the summer and fall, and fall, winter or early spring pruning will remove them. Forsythia is a non-native plant here. Most species are from Asia with one originating in Southeastern Europe.  Forsythia is often used a marker and reminder to apply crabgrass preventer. Once the forsythia is starting to drop its flowers, the timing is right to apply pre-emergent fertilizer. The same ground temperatures at that stage of blooming are the same ground temperatures to initiate crabgrass seed germination. Good to know.

Daffodils complement the landscape, drawing eyes away from possible blinding by overplanted forsythia hedges. Daffodils come in varying shades of yellow from soft, pale yellows and whites to deep, yellows with almost orange trumpets. Bulbs planted in clumps look more natural than soldier straight rows, although rows add a sense of formality and satisfy the orderly type of gardeners. All parts of the daffodil plant is toxic to animals, making is a good choice where deer and voles are common to visit.

daffodil clumps

Directly following the forsythia flowers, several showy trees begin blooming. First is the star magnolia, (Magnolia stellata), with its white star-like flowers. Any winds will move the tepals, and if you squint hard enough, look like twinkling stars. Star magnolia is native to Japan and is a common specimen tree here in the U.S..  Flowers delicate often succumb to frost damage and turning brown tinged.

 

Saucer magnolia (Magnolia x soulangiana), blooms a week or two later than the star magnolia. Saucer magnolia flowers are cup shaped in various shades of pink depending on variety. The parents of this hybrid are Magnolia denudate x Magnolia liliiflorsa, both native to China. I love the smooth grey bark visible during the winter once the leaves drop, providing great winter interest.

 Another softer and less yellow flowering shrub blooming currently is Cornell pink azalea AKA Korean azalea, (Rhododendron mucronulatum). Blossoms come out before the leaves turning the multi-stemmed shrub into a mass of many clear pink flowers. It is native to Korea, Russia, Mongolia and Northern China. Bees especially appreciate its rich nectar source and often are can be seen visiting at all times of day.

Rhododendron mucronulatum. Azalea Pamm Cooper photo

Spicebush, (Lindera benzoin), is a native understory shrub with subtle, pale yellow flowers attached along branches before leaves emerge. Look into the woods to see a bit of dotted yellow haze in wet areas. Leaves can be used to make a tea. Red berries will be produced later in the season providing food for wildlife and birds.

spice bush

Cornelian cherry, (Cornus mas), is not a cherry at all, it is in the dogwood family. Native to Europe where the fruits produced later in the season are used for preserves and syrups, if you can beat the birds to harvest them.  Mature trees develop interesting, exfoliating bark.

Look lower to the ground for first spring flowers. The native bluets (Houstonia caerulea) are beginning their show up. Other common names are Azure Bluet and Quaker Ladies. Find them growing in moist areas near stream banks, rivers and ponds. I see them in natural lawns where no herbicides or weed and feed products were ever used. Cow fields are usually loaded with them in rural areas.

Bluets

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) is another native spring flowering plant poking its white blossoms up from the soil with its leaves following below. Flowers are self-pollinating, and then form a seed pod which ripens around July. Ants are important allies in spreading the seeds, and eating the rich lipid coating on the seeds, aiding in germination.  Bloodroot occurs natural in woodland settings, blooming before the tree leaf canopy develops. Bloodroot gets its name from the red juice emitted from rhizomes historically used to dye wool and fabrics. It was also used for medicinal properties in the past.

 

-by Carol Quish

 

daffodil, stone wall

Last year was the year of the daffodil as declared by the National Gardening Bureau which inspired me to plant more of the yellow flowered bulbs in the fall. I am reaping the benefits of the work with sunny blossoms nodding ‘spring is here’ all over the yard.

daff clump

Daffodils are in the genus Narcissus, perhaps named after the Greek character that fell in love with his own refection in a pool of water. While the flower is a beauty, I am not sure it is so conceited. They are usually yellow, with trumpet shaped flower sitting atop a long stem. Other varieties come in white, cream and pink. Some have single blossoms and other double. Technically the genus Narcissus is divided into 13 main division, defined by number of flowers to a stem, cup shape and length, and length of perianth segments. These classifications are important to botanist or exhibitors of Narcissus, and can be found at The American Daffodil Society. Daffodil is a common name, Jonquil is another common name of one of the divisions.

daffs, back yard

Daffodils are considered long-lived perennials lasting many years and produce larger clumps annually if proper care is given. They are a bulb, best planted from late August through Thanksgiving. The sooner the bulb gets in the ground, the larger its root system will be the following spring. This lazy gardener planted daffodil bulbs during a January thaw on year, with moderately successful blooming results. Potted daffodils are commonly sold in spring as Easter plants. It is best to plant these outside once the flowers pass and the soil is workable in the garden. No need to wait for fall.

Stunning displays are created when mass planted in drifts. Avoid planting bulbs singularly. Mark areas of fall planted bulbs with golf tees to avoid planting other plants over them. Daffodils are deer and rodent proof because all parts of the daffodil plant are toxic if eaten. Squirrels may dig and relocate freshly planted bulbs, but they will not eat them. Sprinkle hot pepper flake over the area of newly planted bulbs.

daff, white and yellow 1

When planting bulbs, chose a site with half to full sun and good drainage. Water logged sites will rot bulbs. The pH preference for daffodils is slightly acid. Loosen the soil to a depth of one foot. Enrich the soil with compost or well-rotted manure, and a few tablespoons of bone meal to add phosphorus. Make a hole two times the height of the bulb, and several inches wide.  Example: for a three inch tall bulb, plant it so its bottom root end is six inches deep. Place the bulb so the pointed end is up. If in doubt plant the bulb sideways; the root will grow down and stem will grow up. Well after planting and until the ground freezes to help the roots develop. In the spring when first leaf tips emerge, fertilize with 5-10-10. Avoid high nitrogen fertilizers on bulbs. Resume watering in spring if rains are not adequate.

After the flower fades, the plant will want to make seed, but don’t let it. Spending excess energy on seed production will reduce the flower size and production of next year’s flower. It is better to cut only the flower stalk back. Leave the leaves to grow and die back on their own. The leaves are where photosynthesis happens, creating energy to store in the bulb. The practice of tying the leaves together is discouraged as it blocks the leaves ability to sunlight. Only cut back the leaves once they yellow or brown. Notice the golf tee marking the spot and plant annuals around them to cover the now open spot in the garden.

daff seed pod forming

After five years clumps may need to be divided and the soil rejuvenated. Lift the entire clump, and separate the bulbs. There should be many smaller bulblets produced surrounding the large mother bulb. These can all be replanted in new place in an enriched bed.

-Carol Quish

daffodil

This is the time of year when summer-blooming bulbs appear in every garden shop, hardware store, or even grocery store. Like a kid in a candy store, I can look at them for ages, dreaming of the colors and shapes that could appear in my garden. Recently the image on a package of Asiatic lily bulbs jumped out at me.

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The mix of antique-looking purples, creams, and pinks would be a beautiful addition our garden bed where limelight hydrangeas, pale drift roses, and a Dogwood Cornus florida with its pale cream blossoms touched with pink.

Asiatic lilies, along with Easter lilies, are true lilies in the genus Lilium and Fritillaria, in the genus Fritillaria, are members of the family Liliaceae. The trumpet-shaped blooms of the Asiatic lily flower in early summer and may face upright atop stems that have long, slim whorled leaves.

Oriental lilies, on the other hand, have flowers that are outward and downward facing and flower in late summer, including the very appropriately named hybrid ‘Stargazer’ lily whose outward-facing flowers appear to be looking up.

Stargazer 1

The Oriental lilies are more fragrant than the Asiatic so they are a better choice if that is what you desire in your garden or home. Both are great options for cutting and look lovely in containers with lower growing plants surrounding them. In addition, when grown in containers they can be swapped out with other plants after blooming or grow both groups in the same planter for a succession of blooms.

However, the bane of any true lily grower’s existence is the Lily leaf beetle, Lillioceris lilii. Both the larvae and the adult Lily leaf beetle feed on the foliage of true lilies, in fact they can totally defoliate a plant in a matter of days. This pest was first documented in the United states in Cambridge, MA, in 1992. In the subsequent years it became a major agricultural and economic pest of growers. The Lily leaf beetle is also known as the Scarlet lily beetle due to its bright red coloring.

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This insect lays its eggs and completes its entire life cycle on the same plant and can cause damage to both the stems and leaves. The bright orange-red, oval eggs are laid in groups of about 12 on the underside of the leaf in May. In 7-10 days the eggs will darken and then hatch out, allowing the larvae to feed on the underside of the leaf before moving to the upper leaf surface and the buds. They can be hard to control with insecticides as they use their own frass (excrement) as a barrier to cover themselves.

In another two weeks they will drop to soil to pupate emerging a week and a half later as adults.  The adults will continue to defoliate and weaken the plant. Neem can be used as a control but must be applied every 5 days or so. Scouting and handpicking are often the best option and I find that holding an open container below them as I scout helps to catch them if they attempt to drop to the ground. Fun fact: they will make a squeaky noise if squeezed or disturbed.

If you don’t enjoy the monitoring that is required to deal with the Lily leaf beetle or the disappointment of walking past your flower beds only to discover that your lilies have been stripped clean you may want to consider planting another dependable perennial bulb: the daylily.

Flower bed

Daylilies used to belong to the same family as the true lilies, Liliaceae, were reclassified in the family Asphodelaceae in the genus Hemerocallis. Since it was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in the mid-eighteenth the Liliaceae family kept expanding until it encompassed over 300 genera and 4500 species. Most of these were grouped into Liliaceae simply because they had six tepals and a superior ovary. From 1998 to 2016 a phylogenetics (evolutionary history and relationships) study by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group was key in recognition of the family Asphodelaceae. Within Asphodelaceae is the sub-family Hemerocallidoideae and the genus Hemerocallis in which resides the daylily.

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The ephemeral blooms of the daylily give it both its common name and Latin name as Hemerocallis comes from the Greek words hemera (day) and kalos (beautiful). To keep daylilies blooming longer I remove any spent flowers and also any of the large, bulbous seed capsules that may appear. Daylilies will grow in full sun or part shade in most soil types although like it slightly acidic, perfect for Connecticut gardens. A bit of a 5-10-5 fertilizer at planting and then each spring when growth appears is all that it needs.

The one pest of daylilies that I have to deal with each year is the metallic-brown Oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis). The adult beetles are attracted to the open blooms and will nestle themselves right down into the center of the blooms.

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Its another pest that I control by handpicking, dropping them into a container of insecticidal soap. I don’t mind though as this activity gets me up close and personnel to the beautiful blooms and also reminds me to deadhead as I go along.

Susan Pelton

All images by S. Pelton, UConn