Weeds are the bane of every gardener and farmer. Unfortunately, it is our cultural practices that often make a very inviting home for the weeds. So many times, people think about weeds during the peak of summer, when they are up to their ears in them. I spend very little time weeding, yet I grow a large array of crops. It all starts before one sets foot in the garden. With a little planning and forethought, you can spend more time enjoying your hobby, and less time weeding!

A nicely mulched garden bed that will almost totally eliminate the need for weeding. Photo by mrl2021

At the beginning of the season, we are very eager to get out there and clean things up. This is probably the most important time of the year, and instead of thinking of your crops, you should be thinking of weeds. Before I do anything, I think about how my actions will favor or discourage weeds. Many people like to rototill the ground. It makes the ground soft and airy, and very easy to work with afterwards. There are some down sides to this, however. The layer immediately below the tilled portion of soil can become compacted over time making it difficult for plant roots to penetrate. This is called a plow layer. Tilling also makes our soils vulnerable to erosion. The smaller, lighter tilled soil particles can be easily blown away in the wind. Also, heavy rains, which generally occur in the spring when the tilling is done, can also wash away our soil. These two actions rob the gardener/farmer of valuable topsoil – the layer that contains our nutrients.  The action of tilling also brings up weed seeds. The soil contains a seedbed of weed seeds just waiting for conditions to change. Tilling action brings them closer to the surface where they will now germinate.

A garden bed in bad need of rehabilitation. This will get tilled in the spring. Photo by mrl2021

Now I am not saying that I never till. If I have a grass area that I want to convert into a garden bed, I usually till it up. At that time, I amend the soil with limestone per recommendations on my UConn soil test results. Limestone is best incorporated into the soil, rather than simply left on the surface. This can also be a time to incorporate fertilizers (I prefer organic), compost, or any other soil amendments you choose. 

So, there are two options left to the gardener at this point – hoe or mulch. After my crops are planted, I like to put down a thick layer of mulch if possible. People debate what material is best, but I say use what is available to you. It beats pulling weeds all summer! For garden beds where I am going to do short growth crops like lettuce, I do not mulch. The lettuce will be pulled and eaten in a short amount of time and then replanted. I just don’t want to take the time to mulch around all those plants. In beds like these I like to periodically hoe up the ground. I use a stirrup hoe, which gently glides across the surface/subsurface of the soil and cuts off the weeds that start to grow.  You must be diligent, however, because if the weeds get too big, the hoe will not be easily able to cut the weeds down. Now you are back to pulling weeds (I try to avoid this at all costs).  I find with this set up, I hoe the area every two to three weeks depending on weed pressure. Other growers may recommend more frequent hoeing, but I find I am always pressed for time and this method seems to work fine for me. There are many other different styles of hoes which are meant to disrupt weed growth early on. There is no right or wrong one, but find one that works for you and most importantly, feels comfortable to use!

The author’s trusty stirrup hoe. Photo by mrl2021

For other beds that I limed and mulched heavily the year before, many times I will skip the tilling process. The mulch is still good at suppressing weeds, and also is breaking down and adding nutrients to my soil. I will go and spot weed where occasional weeds appear. In this case, you must be careful as now you have a space that is bare soil. That area should be re-mulched to prevent new weed growth. Although this does require some manual pulling of weeds, it is minimal and relatively easy if done in the spring.

A garden bed that needs only a little weeding but no tilling. Photo by mrl2021

The last trick is to tarp an area you want to convert into a garden. Silage tarps are great for this.  They generally are black on one side and white on the other. Face the black side up and leave it to cook in the sun. The vegetation below it is then killed by the heat. This can take some time, so don’t expect this to work in a few short weeks. I like to give it a few months. Also, if you need to incorporate some limestone, compost, and/or other soil amendments, you should do so at the beginning of the process, or after the vegetation is killed. Remove the tarp and till in your amendments, then re-tarp for at least a few weeks (longer is better). Remember tilling brings up those weed seeds. The tarp will keep the surface moist and warm which favors germination. The lack of light will then kill off those newly germinated seeds leaving you with clean ground when you are ready to plant.

A tarped ares that is the site of a future garden. Photo by mrl2021

The final trick is to plant cover crops after you harvest your main crop. Many times, the cover crops prevent weed seeds from taking over due to allelopathy (plant chemical warfare), or simply by occupying the space needed to grow and subsequently shading the remaining areas. Cover crops hold on to your nutrients so they are not washed away by rain, and protect your valuable top soil from erosion. Annual cover crops will winter kill and many times degrade sufficiently by spring. Perennial crops generally need to be mowed and/or tilled under in the spring. You could also tarp the area instead. Cover crops positively increase the amount of organic matter and nutrients in the soil. Certain cover crops can even be deep rooted and break up hardpan that has been created. By adding in organic matter once they are done growing, cover crops also work to break up heavy clay soil as well. 

So, there are my tricks for outsmarting the weeds. I hope this helps you spend more time enjoying your garden and less time working in it. Don’t forget to get a soil test to help dial in the proper growing parameters so all your efforts turn into time well spent!   

Matt Lisy

The end of the summer is bitter sweet. Although our gardens are usually producing lots of produce during this time, our gardening days are numbered. It is tempting to just not worry about much and simply enjoy the harvest. However, this is a crucial time to deal with weeds! Weeds left to their own devices are going to produce lots of seeds, which will overwinter and come back to haunt us in the spring. In a few years’ time, a garden can quickly evolve into a weed farm. To combat this, you should be aggressively pulling out those weeds now. When the crop is done, it is a good idea to pull out the remaining vegetation as well to help stop crop-specific diseases.  After weeding and cleaning up the crop residue, now is also time to put down a cover crop.  Cover crops hold on to lots of nutrients, protect against soil erosion, and also prevent weeds from taking hold. Some have even been found to have an allelopathic effect, which means they secrete chemicals that interfere with or suppress weed growth. Cover crops also help build the soil, deepen the top soil layer, break up the hard subsoil, and support the flora and fauna needed for a successful garden. I also like the appearance of a cover crop, because the garden still appears to have life even after our crops are gone.

Large garden patch ready to be weeded. If left until next year, weed seeds will become incorporated into the soil and become a problem. Photo by mrl 2020

This is also the time of year when volunteers present themselves. These are plants that were not planted by the gardener, somehow overwintered from a seed produced the previous year, and germinated in our garden this past spring. Many times, these are the strongest of the previous year’s crop, are adapted to your site conditions, and occasionally have attributes that make it worth saving the seeds. For example, last year I had a volunteer pumpkin. It was a wonderful size for kids and was perfectly round. I saved the seeds for planting the following year. This year I have tiny round, yellow, miniature, cherry-type tomatoes about the size of a large blueberry. I like the mild flavor of them and will save some seeds this year. Now, there is no guarantee that the plants will come back the very same way, but after selecting for a number of years, you may be able to produce plants that will breed true to form. 

Some volunteer small, yellow, blueberry-sized cherry tomatoes. Photo by mrl 2020

Although we tend to think of things as winding down in the fall, now can be a perfect time to plant for a fall harvest. Many of the crops typically planted in early spring can be replanted now like peas or lettuce, for example. Most people have seeds left over from the spring anyway, and fall is a great time to use them up. It is also time to preserve what you have grown. For some reason, it seems I am most busy at this time of year and many times not all of the food gets preserved. Freezing, canning, cold-storing, and drying are some common ways to enjoy your harvest year-round. See the previous ladybug blog post for a discussion of some of these.

Leftover pea seeds from the spring -more than enough for a fall planting. Photo by mrl

Other than weeding and planting cover crops, one of the best things a gardener can do is to write down where everything was planted this last year. It is important to rotate crops to stop the disease life cycles. Any pest that preyed on your crop will generally lay eggs or overwinter in the same area. If you replant the same crop in the same spot next year, when the pest emerges as the weather warms in the late spring/early summer, it will have a bounty of food to eat. By moving crops to a different area of the garden or yard, it eliminates the food source for the pest, or at least makes it harder to find. It seems easy to know what was planted where at this point in time but gets harder hard to remember next spring when you are planning your garden. Before I got into the habit of writing crop locations down, I frequently found myself playing detective in the spring looking for clues as to the crops planted there. I also will write notes about what fertilizers or soil additives I used in the area as well. Although annual soil tests are not a bad idea, it helps to know what was done to the soil when planning which crop will go there the following year.  For example, if I just limed a patch the year before, I would not want to plant a crop with a lower pH requirement. On the other hand, if I have not limed a patch in a while, I would not want to plant a high pH crop in the area as it would take a lot of lime to bring the soil up to the correct level. 

Large bag of winter rye that is ready to be sown. Photo by mrl

A garden is only as good as the soil it contains. Compost is a great way to enhance the soil, but not all compost is created equal. There are many books written on how to properly compost, and I will not discuss in great detail here, but a few of the more important components will be covered. Turning compost will help ensure uniformity throughout. It also helps to ensure that weed seeds get buried and “cooked.” The other thing that can be done is to add more organic materials to the pile at this time. For example, if you compost a lot of grass clippings, maybe layer in some dry leaves this fall. Some well composted material can also be layered into a new pile to help inoculate the material with proper microorganisms.  If done correctly, you will have lots of nice compost in the following spring.

Large compost pile in need of turning and ready for the addition of some fall leaves. Photo by mrl 2020

Putting it all together in a nutshell, harvest your crops, preserve the excess, weed, plant your fall crops, plant cover crops, write down what you did and where you did it, and turn the compost.  This will get you off to a great start next spring.  In reality, the spring of next year starts this fall…

Matt Lisy