Fresh-picked strawberries

We moved into our home in December of 1996 and by June of ’97 I had broken through the sod, tilled the soil, fenced in an area, and planted a new garden. One of the first additions to that garden was a strawberry bed. Even though it took up ¼ of the space and only produced fruit during June I was always happy to have it there. Over the ensuing years the plants have, at various times, bloomed, bore fruit, sent out runners for daughter plants, and died. Three years ago I renovated the plants and moved them to a different area within the garden. This year they started to bloom around Mother’s Day and there were already a few signs of small green berries within a week. The weather during that time was unseasonably warm with a few days of temperatures close to 90° By May 15th the rainfall for Connecticut was already 1.74” below normal. Like most fruiting plants strawberries require 1” of water per week during fruit set and the growing period. Most years this is not an issue but this season has required many trips to the slowly depleting rain barrel. At least it has been warm. Some years a soggy, cold spring has led to a very small harvest. Also, temperatures that dip into the 25-35° range require covering the plants as they are susceptible to frost damage. If you have pushed their winter mulch to the side you can just bring it back over the plants should there be a frost warning.

Early spring strawberry crown

There are three types of strawberries that are generally available for the home gardener: June bearing, everbearing and day neutral. June bearing, as their name suggest, produce fruit during a 2-3 week period in June although there are early, mid and late season varieties. Everbearing strawberries have three periods of flower and fruit production during spring, summer and fall.  For better productivity and fruit quality choose day neutral over everbearing. Day neutral strawberries produce fruit throughout the growing season with few runners. If your space is limited, the soil quality is poor, or you like to plant in containers or beds, then day neutral is a good choice. Day neutral strawberries are often grown as annuals and replanted each spring. If you choose to allow the beds to carry over to the next year you may see that the yields will decline.

Strawberry flower and green berry

Strawberries prefer well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They need full sun. Do not plant strawberries in an area that has had solanaceous crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant or peppers within the previous four years as non-host specific Verticillium root rot fungus also affects strawberries. Another soil-borne fungus that affects strawberries is Phytophthora fragariae (Red stele). Phytophthora fragariae is a very persistent fungus and can survive for up to 17 years once it has become established, even if no strawberries are grown during that time. Even varieties that are listed as resistant may succumb if planted in an area that has had a prior infection. Black root rot is another disease brought on by fungi, nematodes and environmental factors. Avoiding areas that become water-logged is very important when growing strawberries.

Berries from the garden

After you have enjoyed the fruit from June bearing varieties the plants should be renovated. This is the part that makes me cringe. Mow the strawberry plants to a height of 1 ½” above the crowns! It seems to go against every gardening intuition that I possess. Then fertilize with a balanced fertilizer. You may also need to narrow the plant rows to 10-12” and thin out plants that do not look healthy. Spread 1/2” of soil over all but do not bury the crowns. Be sure to continue watering through the fall.

Canned strawberry jam

Strawberries may require a bit of work but they are definitely worth the effort. Biting into a fresh-picked, still warm from the sun, strawberry is a bit of heaven. And then ladling lightly sugared berries over a biscuit with whipped cream? Yum. Or baking them into a crisp accompanied by rhubarb also fresh from the garden? So good. And of course, it doesn’t get any better than cooking them into preserves and hot water bath canning them so that they can be enjoyed all winter long. As of this week I had one 12 oz. jar left from last year’s batch. Now that I can see this year’s crop coming I popped the seal, put a nice spoonful on some cottage cheese and remembered all the reasons that I have strawberries in the garden.

The last of the jam!

Article and all images by Susan Pelton

It’s just about time to plant strawberries and they are an easy to grow and delicious fruit for the home garden. 

 

Strawberries grow best in a deep, well-drained sandy loam soil, rich in organic matter.  The site should have full sun and preferably a gradual slope.  This helps prevent frost injury by allowing cold air to drain away from the plants. Avoid planting where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, or eggplant have been grown in the past four years because these crops are hosts of the fungal pathogen Verticillium, which also attacks strawberries. Also, choose a site that is located near a water supply for irrigation. 

 

It’s best to prepare the site a year before planting.  Have a soil test done to determine the pH and fertility levels.  Strawberries prefer a pH of 5.8-6.2.  Soil testing information is available at http://www.cag.uconn.edu/plsc/soiltest/index.php .   Organic matter can be added either as a cover crop tilled into the soil before going to seed or as applications of barnyard manure.  It is important to control perennial weeds prior to planting.  Grass and other perennial weeds can be killed with herbicides or by smothering with a thick layer of organic material such as hay bales, bundled newspaper, leaves or wood chips.  Adjust the pH and add fertilizer according to soil test results.

 

There are three types of strawberry.  These include June-bearing, day neutral (have 3 fruiting periods per season) and everbearing (have 2 fruiting periods per season).  Among June-bearing cultivars, there are early, mid and late season choices.  Strawberries reproduce by sending out runners (stolons) from “mother plants”.  These produce daughter plants that will root and produce fruit.  The June-bearing varieties produce the most runners. 

 

The best time to plant strawberries is in early spring as soon as the soil can be worked. 

They are purchased in a dormant state and should be stored as near 32° F as possible until planting because strawberries will begin to grow as soon as the temperature is above freezing.  When planting, plant at the depth shown in the diagram below. 

Remove all but 2-3 folded leaves.  During the first year, remove all flower buds.  This encourages runner growth & good plant vigor. A good system for most gardens is the matted row.  Space plants 18” apart within rows with 48-52” between rows.  Maintain a row width of about 24” by positioning runners into the desired area before they form roots.

strawberriesweb.com  Matted row planting system.

 

Mulch strawberries in late fall after temperatures are remaining cold.  This protects the plants from extreme fluctuations in temperature that cause frost heaving in the soil.  Straw is the most commonly used mulch.  In the spring, pull the mulch back from the plants just enough to expose them as shown below.

 

www.tumbledownfarm.com

 

Leaving the mulch near the plants will help keep the fruit clean, reduce some diseases, conserve moisture and discourage weeds.

 

At the end of the season, strawberry plantings need renewing or renovation.  First, mow the leaves off the plants about 1.5” above the crowns.  Fertilize using 20 lbs. of 10-10-10 fertilizer or its equivalent per 1000 square feet.   Narrow the rows to 10-12” wide and thin the plants to 3-4” apart.  Remove plants at 3-4 years old.

 

Control and management of diseases and insect pests are important for healthy strawberry plants.  Common diseases of strawberry are described at  http://www.canr.msu.edu/vanburen/e-1728.htm and insect pests at http://www.extension.umn.edu/yardandgarden/ygbriefs/e215strawberry.html .  For more information on growing strawberries in home gardens or on other home & garden topics, contact the UConn Home & Garden Education Center at ladybug@uconn.edu or tollfree at (877)486-6271. 

 

JA