‘An herb whose flowers are like to a Lions mouth when he gapeth.’
Copious Dictionary in three parts by Francis Gouldman

After the 5th mildest February in Connecticut on record for the past 113 years it felt as if we were going to just saunter into spring this year. Walking around the yard on the first day of March I saw the usual signs of late winter including the new buds of Hellebore peeping through last year’s old foliage and even a brave little slug that had emerged from the soil.

But the next day March came in like a lion with winds gusting to 74 mph at the Ledge Lighthouse in Groton courtesy of a Nor’easter that also brought snow and drenching rains, days later we had 12-18” of heavy, wet snow across the state and today, another 6-10”. Fortunately, hellebore is able to withstand a little bad weather.

Helleborus is known as winter rose, Christmas rose, and, most familiarly to me because of when it blooms, Lenten rose. Its scientific name was given by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and comes from the Greek ‘helléboros’ which breaks down into heleîn ‘to injure’ and borά ‘food’ due to the toxic nature of all parts of the plant. Two kinds of hellebore were known before 400 BCE:  the white hellebore of the Family Melanthiaceae was believed to have been used as a laxative by Hippocrates and the black hellebore, melanorrhizon (black-rooted), a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is the latter group that most garden hellebore belongs to, one that also gives us Delphinium and Clematis (below), Buttercups, Ranunculus, and Anemone.

Hellebore originated in the mountain areas and open woodlands of the Balkans but some species also come from Asia (H. thibetanus) and the border of Turkey and Syria (H. vesicarius). In the centuries since hellebore has found its footing in gardens around the world where it continues to be a favored choice as a ground-cover with dark, shiny, leathery leaves.

It is so popular that Helleborus x hybridus was chosen the 2005 Perennial Plant of the Year from up to 400 nominations by the Perennial Plant Association. Plants are chosen by the PPA for their low-maintenance, wide range of growing climates, multiple season interest, availability, and relatively pest and disease-free care. It’s no surprise that Hellebore made the cut.

Helleborus by Dawn Pettinelli

Image by Dawn Pettinelli

It grows in USDA zones 5a to 8b which makes it very well-suited to Connecticut even though it is not native. It can tolerate shade to part-shade and does well in moist, well-drained soil with a pH range of 5.7-7.0.  Lower pH levels can lead to calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Interestingly, once established, hellebore is very drought-tolerant and even drooping leaves will bounce back unharmed when they are re-hydrated. Due to the fact that its leaves contain nasty-tasting alkaloids it does not get eaten by deer or rabbits and is considered toxic to humans and animals when ingested.

Helleborus orientalis late winter

 

Those same alkaloids can be a problem for people with sensitive skin so it is wise to wear gloves when working with hellebore. I trim the foliage back in late winter, at the start of March if there isn’t any snow cover, so that the emerging flower buds aren’t hidden by the old growth.

If Botrytis cinerea, a grey mold, was a problem on hellebore foliage then infected plant material should be removed in the fall so that it doesn’t overwinter.  Late winter is also a good time to apply a slow-release, balanced fertilizer that will ensure ‘blooms’ that will last for a month or more.

 

I say ‘blooms’ because what appears to be petals are actually tepals that protect the small, barely noticeable flower buds. Sepals are usually green but when they are similar in appearance and color to petals they are called tepals. Other plants that have colored tepals are Orchids, Day lilies, Lilies, Lily of the valley, Tulips, Magnolia and Tulip poplar.

On the hellebore the vintage-looking colors of the tepals range from a pure white to a dusky rose to a deep, almost black, plum. Most tepals become green-tinged as they age and many are veined, spotted, or blotched with shades of pink, purple, or red. The 2-3” ‘blooms’ generally hang or droop down so it is sometimes hard to see the nectaries that provide food for the early pollinators.

There are few insects that bother hellebore but one is the Hellebore aphid which will feed on sap from the flowers and foliage, excreting the honeydew that may lead to the growth of sooty mold. Cucumber mosaic virus can be vectored by feeding aphids and shows itself in light and dark green mottling on Hellebore foetidus.

HL

Image by RHS

 

 

H. foetidus, also known as stinking hellebore or dungwort is found in the wild in southern and western Europe in addition to cottage gardens. Its foliage gives off a pungent smell when crushed and it has another insect pest particular to it, the Hellebore leaf miner, which, as its name suggests, will tunnel into the foliage creating the damage shown to the left.

 

 

There are many commercially available varieties of hellebore and hybridizing has created a color palate that now includes reds, grays, yellows, and greens. The Picotee variety have narrow margins of a darker color. Semi- and double-flowered hellebore have two or more extra rows of tepals and the anemone-centered variety have a ring of shorter curved petals closer to the center which drop off after pollination. A visit to your favorite nursery or garden center is sure to provide you with many selections.

Helleborus by Lisa Rivers

Image by Lisa Rivers

You can put them into the ground as soon as it is workable. As Hellebore do not grow more than 18” high and have flowers that hang down they are best appreciated when viewed from close proximity. Plant them in an area that you walk past often and enjoy them for years to come.

Susan Pelton

All images by Susan Pelton unless noted

Just last week, as I peered into my tiger lily bed, a splash of red caught my eye. Even though I squashed every lily leaf beetle and larvae I found last year, some had apparently been missed and they overwintered to once more feast upon my lilies. The lily leaf beetle is native to Europe and is believed to have entered North America through plant shipments to Canada in the 1940’s. It was first confirmed in New England in 1999, when adult beetles were found in Boston. The bright red adults and rusty colored larvae have a voracious appetite for all kinds of true lilies – Asiatic, Trumpet, Tiger, Martagon, Oriental, Turk’s Cap, etc. as well as Fritillaria (Crown Imperials – although mine got a wilt and died back before the beetles came out) and our native Solomon seal (Polygonatum biflorum). Daylilies, which are not true lilies but instead in the Hemerocallis genus, are not affected. Occasionally lily leaf beetles are said to feed, but not reproduce, on hostas but this has not been a problem with the variegated ones in my gardens.

Red lily leaf beetles on tiger lilies, DMP

Red lily leaf beetles on tiger lilies, DMP

Adult, bright red lily leaf beetles overwinter in mulch and litter and emerge in the spring shortly after lilies begin to pop up and expand their foliage. The adults will feed on the leaves and flowers, mate and then females can lay more than 250 eggs on the undersides of lily leaves. The eggs will hatch in 8 days or so and then the larva will also start feeding on the leaves. To make matters worse, the larvae cover themselves with their own excrement. This is likely a defense mechanism to avoid being picked off as a menu item by birds and other predators. However, it makes squishing them unpleasant so while I will pick off beetles by hand, I admit that I use gloves for the larvae. If left to their own devices, the larvae will pupate, adults will emerge late summer and feed on any lilies left, drop to the ground to overwinter and come back to start this voracious cycle again next spring.

Lily Leaf Beetle, Donna Ellis, UConn

Lily Leaf Beetle, Donna Ellis, UConn

What’s a lily loving gardener to do??? Well, if you are a Connecticut resident join our control study!

Researchers at UConn are conducting a lily leaf beetle biological control project during the summer of 2015.  If you grow lilies in Connecticut, have a minimum of 12 plants in the lily family (Oriental lilies, Asiatic lilies, Turk’s Cap lilies, or Fritillaria) in your garden, and have lily leaf beetles feeding on them, we would like your help.  We will be introducing two species of beneficial parasitic wasps in June and would like to collect lily leaf beetle larvae from June through August. The parasitoid wasps attack lily leaf beetle larvae and over time these natural enemies will disperse from release sites and begin to spread through the state to reduce populations of lily leaf beetles.  The wasps were first introduced in Connecticut in 2012 and have also been released in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island, where they are establishing and starting to impact lily leaf beetle populations.  Please contact Gail Reynolds, Middlesex County Master Gardener Coordinator (gail.reynolds@uconn.edu; phone 860-345-5234) if you would like to participate in the research project.

Gail wants you to know that “the parasitoid wasps are very tiny, non-social, stingless wasps and that the wasps are not a panacea that will destroy the lily leaf beetles quickly. We encourage gardeners to tolerate the beetles and the (yucky) larvae so that we can collect and inspect them.  If they spray an insecticide or pick off the adults/larvae, then we can’t ascertain if the wasps are doing their thing.  We could potentially have had more parasitism occurring but we can’t confirm if the larvae are removed and killed without being examined.”

Lily Leaf Beetle Larva, Donna Ellis, UConn

Lily Leaf Beetle Larva, Donna Ellis, UConn

Donna Ellis, UConn Senior Cooperative Extension Educator and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program Coordinator, who is coordinating this research project wants you to know that “The lily leaf beetle biological control project, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, began in CT in 2012 with the release of two species of beneficial parasitoid wasps that will help reduce lily leaf beetle populations. The releases will continue this year, and Gail is looking for gardens throughout Connecticut. The releases have been made in all counties. To date, there has been one confirmed site where a parasitized lily leaf beetle larva was collected (New Haven County) in 2013. With additional numbers of beneficial wasps introduced each year in the state and the establishment of these biological control agents, we anticipate an increase in the number of parasitized lily leaf beetle larvae in the near future.”

LLB Parasitoid wasp release, created by Gail Reynolds, UConn

LLB Parasitoid wasp release, created by Gail Reynolds, UConn

Gail will visit potential gardens to assess the lily, and lily leaf beetle populations, and she will release the parasitoid wasps, which are reared and shipped to CT from the University of Rhode Island (URI). Gail will also be doing most of the lily leaf beetle larval collections, to ship to URI where they will be examined to determine whether they are parasitized.  During the summer, Gail and Donna will receive training at URI so that we can examine the larvae at UConn.

Gail took the lead in creating a new fact sheet on lily leaf beetle biological control in Connecticut which can be found on the UConn IPM website: http://ipm.uconn.edu/documents/raw2/html/569.php?aid=569

Good gardening to you all!

Dawn

Dawn (with input this week from Donna Ellis and Gail Reynolds, UConn PSLA & Extension)