“ The world’s favorite season is the spring. All things seem possible in May.”

-Edwin Way Teale

crabapples along driveway route 85 May 7 2017

Crabapples along a fence highlight a driveway on Route 85 – May 2017

 

May is usually the time of warmer weather and sunny days that brighten the landscape again with flushes of green leaves and splashes of color from flowers. We look forward to another season of gardening and other outdoor activities, and the encounters with nature that are unavoidable as one ventures outside.

This May has been colder than I would prefer, but at least it has seen more rainfall than last spring. The reason this is especially good news is that the gypsy moth caterpillars have recently hatched, and the rains bring hope that the fungal pathogen, Entomophaga maimaiga, will help diminish populations of this pest. Last year they went unchecked for most of their caterpillar stage as drought conditions kept fungal spores from germinating.

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A Wilson’s warbler stopped by on its way north

Ferns are opening up now and their graceful forms are a welcome decoration wherever they appear. My personal favorites are the scented fern, cinnamon fern and the diminutive polypody which are often found growing together on rocks with mosses. Polypody work well in dish gardens coupled with moss and partridgeberry, and can be brought indoors for the winter, or left outside if that works better.

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Sensitive ferns in a wetland area

 

Most trees have leafed out by now, with the pokey sycamores and hickories lagging behind, as usual. With the flush of leaves come the migrating warblers. Caterpillars are now found eating leaves in the tree canopies, and this is where many of the warblers find some protein for their return to northern breeding grounds. Rose-breasted grosbeaks, scarlet tanagers, orioles, and thrushes are all back and they have transformed the woodlands to a symphony of birdsong. Also, barred and great horned owls born in late winter and early spring have left their nests, and parents can often be heard calling to their young. Many robins have already hatched their first brood as of two weeks ago, so it must be true that the early bird gets the worm…

mother and two baby great horned owls Pamm Cooper photo 2017

These young great horned owls left the nest days after this picture was taken.

 

Dogwoods have had spectacular blooms this year, and crabapples and viburnums as well. Yellow water lilies, Nuphar lutea, are beginning to bloom. This plant closes its flower late in the day, trapping beetles or flies overnight who will pollinate it as they try to escape.

Yellow pond lilies Nuphar luteum Airline 5-14-16

Limber honeysuckle, Lonicera dioica, a native vine-like shrub that is infrequently encountered, is also starting to bloom. The tubular red flowers have distinctive yellow stamens and attract hummingbirds and native bumblebees. Fringed polygala, a small, pink native wildflower with flowers that make me think of Mickey Mouse with an airplane propeller, are just beginning to bloom and are often found together with stands of the native Canada Mayflower. Native columbine are also blooming now and native Pinxter azalea should be following shortly.

limber honeysuckle May 7 2017

limber honeysuckle

fringed polygala May 13, 2015 Pamm Cooper photo

Fringed polygala

Interesting galls are forming on the young leaves on wild cherry. Spindle galls, caused by the mite Eriophyes emarginatae, are red spindle-like structures of leaf materialcaused by the mites feeding within. These tiny mites begin feeding as soon as cherry leaves expand in the spring. Although they can occur in large numbers, the galls will not stop leaves from photosynthesizing, and the trees will put out new leaves after mites are inactive.

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Spindle galls on a small black cherry

Giant silkworm moths such as Cecropia, Polyphemus and Luna have been overwintering in cocoons and should be eclosing any time from mid- May to June. These spectacular moths usually fly during the night, but are often attracted to lights. Since they cannot feed, if you find any lingering about in the daytime, don’t worry about what to feed them- just enjoy their company!

cecropia female 9p.m. same day as emrged from cocoon 5-31-13

Female Cecropia moth

Swallowtail, Painted Lady, American coppers, Juvenal’s duskywing and many other butterflies are out and about. Wherever you see them, check out larval host plants for caterpillars. Sometimes they are as close as your own backyard.

striped jack-in-the-pulpit for web site

Jack-in-the-pulpit

Here’s hoping for timely rains during the summer, warmer days to get our blood moving and an abundance of fruits, flowers and birds that to follow May’s fore-running to summer.

 

Pamm Cooper

“The February sunshine steeps your boughs and tints the buds and swells the leaves within.”

– William C. Bryant

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Great Blue Heron in an open area of an otherwise icy pond February 25 2017

It feels, temperature-wise, that we are on the cusp of spring, and certainly the landscape is responding to the warmer and longer of February. Right now we are seeing spring try to break out a little early in some areas. It may still snow, of course, but maple trees are tapped at the usual time and birds have begun their morning and evening territorial calls in response to longer daylight periods. Skunk cabbages have been poking their heads up for a while, but it is still winter, and we may see temperatures go down to a more normal range for this time of year.

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Around the state, the spring blooming witch hazel, Hamamelis vernalis is blooming in areas along the Connecticut shoreline and further north in sunny areas. Native to the Ozark Plateau which ranges from southern Missouri through parts of Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma, this witch hazel does well along gravelly or rocky stream banks and moist or dry soils in the landscape. It does best in full sun, but will tolerate some shade. Height is normally around eight feet as a mature plant, and about as wide.

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Hamamelis vernalis blooming on campus at Storrs February 26, 2017

We can tell where the native willows are now as they are starting to bloom now. Other spring bloomers, like the star and southern magnolias, have swollen flower buds. Here’s hoping that we do not have a repeat of last year, when snow and freezing temperatures in the low teens followed and destroyed the flower buds of many of our fruit and ornamental trees.

Whitlow grass, Draba verna, is flowering in sunny areas especially where the soil in lawns has open areas. Whitlow grass is not a grass at all, but a member of the mustard family, and it is one of the first herbaceous plants to flower before spring. It has tiny white flowers that may be mistaken for a chickweed, but this plant arises from a basal rosette. It is a winter annual and can form large mats that are evident in spring when the white flowers appear. Non- native, this plant has been around for over one hundred years.

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Whitlow grass and syrphid fly February 28, 2017

As ice melts from inland ponds, migrating ducks and wading birds may appear at any time. In late February, a great blue heron was in a little open area on a pond otherwise covered in soft ice. Ring- necked ducks and hooded merganzers have been seen also at inland ponds that are along their northern migration route. Song sparrows and cardinals are already singing their spring songs- song sparrows sing off and on all day perched on the tops of shrubs or small trees

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A male song sparrow just finished his song from atop a mountain laurel in the wild

Spring peepers were heard the last week of February when the weather was very warm during the day. I have not heard any since, though. Painted turtles have been sunning themselves on rocks and floating logs during the warmer days as well. And chipmunks are up and running. Woodchucks are also out and about, which is early for them. Unless there are some herbaceous plants greening up, they will probably head down below ground and extend their winter nap.

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Painted turtle getting its first sun bath of 2017

If you have any birdhouses that need cleaning, do it now. Although I have seen bluebirds build a nest on top of an old one in a nest box, which is the exception rather than the rule. Phoebes may be arriving any time, so keep an eye open for this early migrater. They have a distinctive call which you can hear by visiting Cornell University’s link: https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Eastern_Phoebe/id

Snow melt and recent winter rains have helped some vernal pools recover from the drought. Streams are also flowing with more water than they had last summer and fall. Check out vernal pools for wood frog and spotted salamander eggs before the end of March.

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Clark Creek in Haddam off Rte 154 has significant flow after February snow melt

And if a garden has been mulched over perennials and they have started growing, do not remove leaves or mulch as that has insulated the plants from the cold. Uncovering them too soon may invite damage if the weather returns to more seasonable temperatures below freezing. Winter is probably not over yet, but it will be soon. That cheers me up considerably.

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Pussy willow

Pamm Cooper                                                  all photos © 2017 Pamm Cooper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Late March and early April in Connecticut are the time of year that we gardeners dream about through the long, cold winter. The temperatures are on the rise, the days have lengthened, the soil is workable, and even if we do receive a snowfall it generally doesn’t last for long. The Lenten Rose (Hellebore) has bloomed and the crocus, grape hyacinth, daffodils are in their glory, soon to make way for the tulips which will follow. Yellow daffodils paired with the deep purple-blue of the grape hyacinth is one of my favorite combinations.

The pussy willows have come out and the forsythia is in bloom which means that it is the anecdotal time to put down the crabgrass preventer. The pre-emergent herbicide needs to be applied and watered in before the crabgrass seeds that were dropped last year germinate. Please visit our page on Crabgrass Control for more information on this yearly bane of homeowners.

Pussy Willow

For me this time of year is about planning this year’s vegetable garden and starting the growing season. It starts with plotting out the area that we have allotted for our vegetable garden (its 15’ x 25’) which includes four raised beds that are 3’ x 5’ each. There are many ways to do a garden plan. The simplest way, and the way that I started some years ago, is to put pencil to paper and sketch out a rough drawing.

The next step up is to use graph paper to plot out the actual footage available. This is the manner that I have progressed to over the years. With pencil, ink, and colored pencils I draw the placement of this year’s plantings. I refer to prior year’s plans so that I can rotate varieties among the beds as much as possible although I don’t have a very large space. There are several established perennial plantings, such as asparagus, strawberries, raspberries, rhubarb, and chives that do not get rotated.

Chives

These crops are placed around the perimeters of the garden, mostly to the east and south, where they will not block the sun from other plantings. The asparagus spears are just starting to emerge, the chives are growing, and the rhubarb was a perfect size to divide and replant.

A recent post on our UConn Home & Garden Education Center  Facebook page shared a link to many vegetable garden planners that can be found on-line ranging from the very simple to those that allow you to enter your actual plot size, vegetable varieties and succession plantings. There is even an app!

So, plan in place, it’s time to start planting. There are so many crops that enjoy a cool weather start such as peas, spinach, kale, arugula, radishes, beets, bok choy, and carrots. I have been working with my daughter Hannah on some plans for garden beds that her early education class will be working on this spring. In doing research on some classroom-appropriate experiments I came across one that compares the growth rate of seeds germinated (prior to planting) vs. un-germinated (direct sown). I usually soak beet seeds before they are planted but this year I germinated all of the varieties that are planted in the early spring, laying the seeds out on a damp paper towel and covering them with another damp towel.

Pre-germination

Just a side note, did you know that each beet ‘seed’ is actually a hard shell that encloses 3 seeds? As they sprout you can not only see three distinct seedlings (the row on the left in the image below) but the colors reflect the variety of beet also, whether red or yellow.

2 Days Later

Within days most of the seeds were well-sprouted and I planted them in the garden in their selected spots. It will be interesting to see if this gives them a head-start and if Hannah’s class gets similar results. They will also be running an experiment that starts seeds in solutions of differing pH levels from base to acidic to see what seeds prefer. If you would like to know the pH level of your garden soil and what your crops require then a soil sample to the UConn Soil Nutrient Analysis Laboratory.

One thing to keep in mind when planting is done as a classroom activity is the length of the available growing season. There is little point in planting vegetables that will need care and be ready to harvest during the summer months when school is not in session. Our choices therefore were cool-weather plants that would be ready to harvest before school dismisses for the summer. Among these are snow peas that will mature in 60 days, Indian Summer spinach (35 days), Little Finger carrots (65 days), lettuce, arugula and spinach (35-40 days), Early Wonder beets (60 days) and Cherry Belle radishes that will be ready to harvest in just 22 days.

Just think about it. In a little more than a month we can be enjoying a freshly picked, tasty salad that is the harbinger of more good things to come!

Susan Pelton

All images by Susan Pelton

 

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Ruddy ducks- some sleeping- with two males with their blue bills, a feature during breeding season

March is the time when we look forward to the arrival of spring and all that goes with it. Days are getting longer and the birds are now singing their spring morning songs. Usually on of the first plants to bloom, Whitlow grass bloomed in February this year and should be done by now. Magnolia buds are swelling and forsythia bloom is on the cusp. Of course, deer are still nibbling on plants like arborvitae, with or without snow covering the ground. Sometimes this means war- either fencing or deer spray to keep the trees from having little or nothing at the bottom.

arborvitae protected from deer

Arborvitae hedge with fencing to stop browsing deer

On March 8-9 this year we will witness a moon event called (unscientifically) a super new moon. This new moon will happen one day before the moon reaches its closest point to the earth in its orbit- the lunar perigee. While we will not be able to see this supermoon, as it lines up with the sun it causes a greater effect on our oceans. Perigees and apogees (when the moon is at its furthest point from the earth) occur because of the elliptical orbit of the moon. Low tide on Monday along the Connecticut coast was the lowest I have seen in a long time. So that will be why tides are extreme the next couple of days.

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diagram courtesy of science.nasa.gov

March is a good time to go on birdwatching jaunts along coast. Long Island Sound and salt water marshes, estuaries and ponds are good places to look for migratory waterfowl. This week there were buffleheads, scaups, merganzers, and other birds that will migrate north later on to breed. At the causeway in Saybrook there was a flock of ruddy ducks that numbered over one hundred. These tiny, compact ducks are noted for their long, stiff tails that they often stick up in the air while swimming or resting on the water. Breeding males sport a distinctive blue bill and a white cheek. These are diving ducks that feed at night on aquatic invertebrates and insect larvae. During the day they sleep on the water with their heads tucked over their back and under a wing.

In the town of Lyme there is a restoration project to restore a natural river channel by removing the Ed bills Pond Dam that has been there for almost 80 years. This restored habitat along the East Branch of the Eight-mile River will allow migratory fish such as alewife, blueback herring Atlantic salmon and others to have optimum passage for spawning without using the fish ladder that was put in when the dam existed. Many dams put in years ago along Connecticut rivers still may prevent fish from reaching their original spawning habitats, but this project is a good step in the right direction.

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Restoration project in Lyme for fish to return to their spawning habitat without having to swim up fish ladders

If the weather stays warm, Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.) may start to bloom. One of our first native flowers to bloom, this is a member of the Poppy Family, and has roots and a stem with red- orange color. Its genus comes from the Latin word for bleeding- Sanguinarius. In late March or early April, the flower bud is wrapped in its single leaf and usually the flower opens before the leaf completely unfolds. Marsh marigolds should also begin showing a flush of green in or near streams and brooks. soon after, the yellow flowers should appear before much else has even begun to leaf out around them.

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Bloodroot

I, for one, am tired of the monochromatic browns and grays of the winter landscape, and welcome even the smallest changes that signal a return to warmer weather and the leafing out that goes with it. So here’s hoping winter continues its departure with a short good-bye so that spring can herald its return with its colorful green foliage and floral accessories.And spring peepers were heard Wednesday and Thursday night at a little pond at the end of my street, so spring is on the way for sure.

Pamm Cooper                                                All photos copyright2016  by Pamm Cooper

 

 

 

Marsh Marigolds blooming in a stream in early April 2015

Marsh Marigolds blooming in a stream in early April 2015

Behold, my friends, the spring is come; the earth has gladly received the embraces of the sun, and we shall soon see the results of their love!

Sitting Bull

I always look for marsh marigolds Caltha palustris L., also known as cowslip, along boggy woodland streams, in early April, and they were certainly blooming within the normal time period this year. Last spring they were late arriving, perhaps because of a snowfall in mid- April. Who knows? I am just glad to see them as they are a limpid herald of spring. Bloodroot is also an early bird, and I have some in my garden. But flowers have not opened fully or they close without good sun, so maybe soon we will have less gloomy gray days and I can see the flowers.

bloodroot 2011

Well, spring is trying to get started here in Connecticut and we seem to be on average ten to fifteen days behind normal plant development so far, according to the UMass Landscape Message report for April 24, 2015. After a winter that saw high snowfall over frozen ground, and topped off by continual cold temperatures after a two- day tease of high 60’s a couple of weeks ago, we all need a break from cold, gray days. That should happen soon. Maybe.

Lawns took a big hit this winter and spring from snow molds, voles and soggy soils causing the death of some areas of the lawn. Green up and recovery has been slow as soil temperatures are only in the upper 40’s. Regrowth is spotty at the moment. Of course, grubs are up and at ‘em and have been for a few weeks. Worms are near the surface and so are the moles that eat them. Robins are always a good indicator of the presence of earthworms near the soil surface, and so is mole activity. Vole damage may have killed large areas of lawns, readily seen where they clipped off the tops of the grass while under the protection of snow cover. If crowns were eaten, then raking up the dead material and reseeding will be needed.

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Vole-and-snow-mold-damage-in April from 2015  winter snow cover

 

The time frame between forsythia full bloom and lilac bloom is typically when pre- emergent crabgrass control is applied. Be careful not to be too late or too early. Last year older forsythia cultivars were late and were in full bloom at the same time as lilacs. This year may prove to be similar. Hardy forsythia cultivars are already in full bloom, while the older ones are in sparse to no bloom as of today (April 28, 2015). If that is the case, make sure to apply pre-emergent products before lilacs bloom and some already have leaves and flower buds appearing.

As for the birds- I participate in the Audubon Spring Bird Count every year, which takes place from the last week of April through the first two weeks of May. The idea is to count species during this time frame, so many migratory birds make the count interesting as they pass through on their way north. So far even the birds that breed here are slow in arriving. Got one wood thrush, the first I saw this year, on Saturday. Savannah Sparrows are just arriving here in Storrs, so Bob-o-links and Meadowlarks should arrive soon as well. Pileated Woodpeckers, the Holy Cow! Behemoths that are here all year, are regular visitors to my backyard woods. Last week I was able to get a shot of a male and female on the same tree. How often does that happen?

Savannah Sparrow on Horsebarn Hill, Storrs April 28, 2015

Savannah Sparrow on Horsebarn Hill, Storrs April 28, 2015

Male and female Pileated Woodpeckers in my backyard woods

Male and female Pileated Woodpeckers in my backyard woods

Hummingbirds have been spotted in southern areas of Connecticut, so get ready with hummingbird feeders. Usually they arrive as apples are blooming or the early Azalea cultivars. Keep in mind that hummingbirds eat insects as well, and often can be seen in the woods, especially around oaks because these trees attract many insects. So the hummers will not starve if you are late with your feeders.

Bluebirds have built their nests already, or at least have picked out a good nesting spot. If you have a large open area near woods where you know bluebirds live, but have trouble with sparrows consistently taking over any house you may put up, consider putting up two or three houses 25- 30 feet apart.  At my golf course, and here on campus on Horse Barn Hill we put up three birdhouse in the same area and every year we have a tree swallow, a bluebird and an English sparrow in each box. Clean them out by early to late March as bluebirds select nesting sites early even though nest building may not occur yet.

Male Bluebird on this year's selected nesting box

Male Bluebird on this year’s selected nesting box

Insects are slowly but surely making their presence known. Butterflies seen so far are Mourning Cloaks, Spring Azure hairstreaks, Commas and Question Marks, and Cabbage Whites are migrating in this week. Bees and wasps are now common where flowers are blooming, and so are many flies. Lily leaf Beetles will appear as lily host plants start to grow, so be prepared to deal with that pest. Boxwood leaf miners should be in the pupal state soon, and adults should fly by mid May. Look for pupal cases that are exposed on leaves as the adults emerge to gauge when egg- laying may occur. Fireflies are also in flight, but are not in flashing mode yet. Six- spotted tiger beetles should be out and about. Check for these along open dirt roads or woodland paths- their brilliant green metallic elytra make them easy to spot. And tent caterpillars are emerging from their egg masses and using silk to make their tents at forks in cherry branches.

Tent caterpillars just hatched and in daytime shelter
Tent caterpillars just hatched and in daytime shelter

There is too much else going on to even think about, but I am glad that  green and other colors are on the landscape palette again. Here’s hoping we have a great growing season with lots of rewards for our hard labors.

Pamm Cooper                                    All photos copyright 2015 by Pamm Cooper

One of the first " signs of spring" Porter Street Manchester early March 2015

One of the first ” signs of spring” Porter Street Manchester early March 2015

Well, this has been an endless winter it seems, at least, in New England. Snow, snow, and more snow, and today is the first day of spring and we may get more. But at least we have seen patches of ground lately as the snow is returning to the sky as water vapor or seeping through the soil as water. At least spring snows leave in a timely manner.

Still the winter was not a complete bust. I came across a nice little planting of Red- osier dogwood while snow still covered the ground and made a nice backdrop so the brilliant red twigs could show off their splendid colors. Its winter contrast to the white snow cover is one of the reasons to consider this plant for your landscape. This variety may be Cornus sericea “ Kelsei, which is a dwarf having very slender branches, and growing only a couple of feet high and wide. Or perhaps it is ” Midnight Fire” or “ Cardinal ”. Some red-osiers should be regularly pruned back to keep older branches from changing to a dull gray and to encourage the younger red twigs to develop instead.

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Red-osier dogwoods along a stone wall in Connecticut- March 13 ,2015

I always look for Horned Larks, Eremophila alpestris, around the end of winter and the beginning of spring as large grassy areas become open as snow melts. A common migrant and winter visitor to Connecticut, these  birds can be found nearly every year in the fields near the Meig’s Point Nature Center at Hammonasset State Park. They just arrived this week as pastures lost large amounts of snow cover along Horse Barn Hill Road on the UConn campus. This open upland bird is threatened as habitats are being lost due to reforestation or other events. It walks along the ground and can be difficult to see as it blends in with the brown dormant pasture grasses. It is named for its little, black “ horns “, which are really just tufts of feathers and may not always be visible as sometimes they are flattened against the head.

Horned Lark at Meig's Point March 13, 2015

Horned Lark at Meig’s Point March 13, 2015

Phoebes are one of our first migrating breeding birds to arrive in Connecticut, often appearing well before any insects are available to eat. These are members of the fly-catchers, and can be recognized by their rather large head, gray back, wings, and tail, and whitish belly. They have a sweet “ pick” call and distinctive raspy “ phoebe “ song. When they perch, they wag their tails. Some were already reported as arriving along the coastal areas of Connecticut last week. Haven’t seen or heard any up in my area yet.

Deer are also becoming more frequent visitors to some backyards now that they can travel through substantially less snow cover than w had all winter. Many people reported seeing no deer at all since last December. Well, if any did not starve to death, they are once more returning to their favorite haunts, which may include your own backyard. Two days ago three deer  (out of a formerly larger group that would be seen together) came by my back yard, browsing for what little understory plants or acorns they could find. Two ended up bedding down in the yard for most of the day, enjoying the sun and its welcome warmth plus the peace and quiet that comes from having no dogs bopping around to trouble their calm.

Deer napping in the sun in my backyard

Deer napping in the sun in my backyard

 

 

 

 

Same deer cleaning its feet

Same deer cleaning its feet

If you get to any swampy areas, you can see the skunk cabbages starting to appear out of the snow and ice. The skunk cabbage is one on many thermogenic plants that has the ability to raise their own temperatures above that of the air that surrounds them. Thus, this is one of the first plants to bloom in the spring, starting as early as February and continuing until May. Because the flower grows so quickly, enough warmth is generated to heat the soil around it and cause snow to melt as the soil is warmed.

So it is out with the old, in with the new, and the new should be much better and more fun than old man winter…shouldn’t it?

 

Pamm Cooper                              All photos copyright 2015 by Pamm Cooper     Use by permission only

The Return of the Grackles

This has been a very cold and snowy winter but spring is right around the corner. There is nothing better than a walk around the yard looking for the first signs of the crocus pushing up through the sometimes still snow-covered ground. Or cutting forsythia branches to bring inside where the warmth of our home will force the buds into blooms of yellow sunshine. And each year we look forward to the return of the grackles, a sure sign to us that winter is losing its grip.

image 1         Since 1996, when they arrived on March 6th, my daughter Hannah has been tracking the reappearance of the grackles each spring. Her journal entries document this harbinger in a way that only a child could. Her entry in 1998 at the age of 8, complete with a drawing, is priceless.

diary 1

diary 2

diary 3

The dates have fluctuated from the earliest sighting on February 20, 2005 to the latest on March 21, 1999. The temperatures also have ranged from 33 degrees on that same day in February in 2005 (although it had been close to 50 degrees in the days prior) to 68 degrees on March 17, 2003. There have been years where snow still covered the ground.

diary 4diary 6

Everyone may not be as happy to see the grackles as we are. Although primarily ground feeders they will clean out a bird feeder in no time at all if there is still snow cover. Between them and the starlings it can be a chore to keep the suet and feeders full for the other birds that have been feeding all winter. The grackles move into this area as their breeding grounds after wintering just a bit to our south in Pennsylvania and all the way to Florida. They forage and roost in large communal flocks of up to a million individuals and can therefore have a huge impact in an area. Grackles will eat ripening corn as well as corn sprouts and are the #1 threat to the corn crop causing damage in the multimillion dollar range.

Hannah went off to college in 2008 but we still look for the grackles to return and I send her a picture at the first sighting each year.

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If you are interested in tracking birds or other species in your area there are a couple of great options. The USA national Phenology Network is an organization that collects such data from researchers, students, and volunteers as a tool to understanding and adapting to variable and changing climates and environments. Please visit their site for more information: USA-NPN. Also, mark your calendars for February 12-15, 2016 for the next Great Backyard Bird Count as another way to help track bird species in your area.

Susan Pelton

All images by Susan Pelton