So, its not just me admiring the spectacular tulip displays this year. It’s not that I’ve been traveling by more of them; the flowers are just so vibrant, cheery and beckoning. And, they have been so duly noted by the New York Times and Boston Globe. Perhaps it is a sign of new hope after a long, long year of illness, anxiety and isolation. Whatever the reason, do slow down and enjoy the short but glorious tulip prime time show.

Cool hued tulips. Photo by dmp, 2019

Few flowering bulbs put on as spectacular a spring display as tulips. Most species are native to Turkey, Afghanistan and Iran where they have been cultivated for more than a thousand years. According to Persian legend, tulips sprang from the blood of a distraught lover who took his own life. About 400 years ago, bulbs from Central Asia were sent to Holland to the Flemish botanist, Clusius and planted in the botanical garden at the university at Leiden. The precious bulbs, that he was both displaying and doing research on, were stolen, twice, and were distributed throughout Holland. Clusius was trying to determine the reason for distinctive stripes or ‘breaks’ in the petals of some of the tulips. The craze that followed was dubbed ‘Tulipomania’ and finally the government was forced to put an end to this expensive obsession. Towards the latter part of the eighteenth century the Dutch began hybridizing tulips and created the majority of varieties planted today.

Tulip Carnival de Rio sports a flamed bicolor pattern not caused by a virus. Photo by dmp, 2019

Tulips are divided into two main classes. Species or botanicals are derived from the wild forms and are best for naturalizing as they are usually true from seed. Hybrids, which are most commonly purchased here, have been bred specifically for color, bloom time and other desired characteristics and are propagated by offsets. While hybrids are bold and beautiful and hard to resist, please try to find a place for their wilder and often more dainty or whimsical looking ancestors. A recent news thread was entitled, “Who Cares About Kyrgyzstan’s Threatened Tulips?” Many of the 27 tulip species in this country are at risk from overgrazing, over harvesting, mining and urbanization, not to mention climate change. Animals may be able to move to more amenable environments as their habitats are affected by climate change; plants move on a much slower scale that puts many species in imminent danger of extinction. Two Connecticut bulb companies that do offer nice selections of species tulips are and    

Tulipa tarda, a species tulip. Photo by dmp, 2020

Early blooming tulips include Kaufmanniana, also known as waterlily tulips, Fosterana tulips, and single and double early tulips. Kaufmanniana tulips are generally bicolored and grow only 6 to 9 inches tall. Many have lovely mottled or striped foliage. The Fosteranas are the tallest of the early tulips reaching up to 20 inches. They are noted for their beautiful cup-shaped flowers and wide assortment of colors.

Kaufmanniana tulips with mottled foliage. Photo by dmp, 2021

Both single and double early tulips last longer than other early blooming varieties with the singles being quite fragrant and suitable for forcing.

Single early bloomers were crossed with late bloomers to create the midseason triumph tulip. “Apricot Beauty’ with its rosy, peach blossoms on 14 inch stems is one of my favorites, doubling as an excellent cut flower. Greigii hybrids are shorter midseason tulips known for their mottled or striped foliage. A recently developed midseason variety are the Darwin hybrids, a cross between late blooming Darwins and early Fosteranas featuring extremely large, colorful blooms. Rembrandt tulips are related to the Darwins and are grown for their vivid stripes and blotches caused by a nonpathogenic virus.

Late season Darwins are perhaps the most popular of tulip varieties. Colors range from pure white to almost black. Tall cottage tulips with their 3 foot stems and delicate looking lily-like flowers are also late bloomers. An interesting subdivision of the cottage tulips are the viridiflora, distinctive because of their bright green flares dividing the center of each petal.

Except for the species, tulips are not notably long lived plants and in formal beds they are best treated as annuals and discarded or placed in a less conspicuous spot after bloom. The bulbs break down into smaller bulblets and the flower size is reduced after a year or two. Varieties touted as perennial are usually jumbo Darwin hybrids and will provide you with 3 or 4 seasons of top quality blooms although I have had some coming back for 15 years now.

Some of these tulips planted 15 years ago still come back each spring. Photo by dmp, 2006

Plant tulips shortly after purchasing in the fall to ensure good root establishment. Planting at 8 to 10 inch depths is said to prolong the life of the bulbs. Tulips look best planted en masse so use at least a dozen of each color and limit yourself to 2 or 3 colors per bed for a nice effect. Underplanting with pansies, alyssum, or low growing spring flowering perennials like rockcress or silver mound artemesia will help camouflage the dying tulip foliage.

For a real treat to the senses, visit Wicked Tulip Flower Farms ( in Exeter, RI or Bantam, CT. Walk through their acres of tulips, pick your own bouquet or order online for curbside pickup. Regardless of where you are or traveling to, be on the look out for vibrant, colorful tulips to bring some cheer into your spring and brighten our year to come.

Wicked Tulips Flower Farm, Photo by dmp 2019

Happy spring!

Dawn P.  

‘An herb whose flowers are like to a Lions mouth when he gapeth.’
Copious Dictionary in three parts by Francis Gouldman

After the 5th mildest February in Connecticut on record for the past 113 years it felt as if we were going to just saunter into spring this year. Walking around the yard on the first day of March I saw the usual signs of late winter including the new buds of Hellebore peeping through last year’s old foliage and even a brave little slug that had emerged from the soil.

But the next day March came in like a lion with winds gusting to 74 mph at the Ledge Lighthouse in Groton courtesy of a Nor’easter that also brought snow and drenching rains, days later we had 12-18” of heavy, wet snow across the state and today, another 6-10”. Fortunately, hellebore is able to withstand a little bad weather.

Helleborus is known as winter rose, Christmas rose, and, most familiarly to me because of when it blooms, Lenten rose. Its scientific name was given by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and comes from the Greek ‘helléboros’ which breaks down into heleîn ‘to injure’ and borά ‘food’ due to the toxic nature of all parts of the plant. Two kinds of hellebore were known before 400 BCE:  the white hellebore of the Family Melanthiaceae was believed to have been used as a laxative by Hippocrates and the black hellebore, melanorrhizon (black-rooted), a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It is the latter group that most garden hellebore belongs to, one that also gives us Delphinium and Clematis (below), Buttercups, Ranunculus, and Anemone.

Hellebore originated in the mountain areas and open woodlands of the Balkans but some species also come from Asia (H. thibetanus) and the border of Turkey and Syria (H. vesicarius). In the centuries since hellebore has found its footing in gardens around the world where it continues to be a favored choice as a ground-cover with dark, shiny, leathery leaves.

It is so popular that Helleborus x hybridus was chosen the 2005 Perennial Plant of the Year from up to 400 nominations by the Perennial Plant Association. Plants are chosen by the PPA for their low-maintenance, wide range of growing climates, multiple season interest, availability, and relatively pest and disease-free care. It’s no surprise that Hellebore made the cut.

Helleborus by Dawn Pettinelli

Image by Dawn Pettinelli

It grows in USDA zones 5a to 8b which makes it very well-suited to Connecticut even though it is not native. It can tolerate shade to part-shade and does well in moist, well-drained soil with a pH range of 5.7-7.0.  Lower pH levels can lead to calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Interestingly, once established, hellebore is very drought-tolerant and even drooping leaves will bounce back unharmed when they are re-hydrated. Due to the fact that its leaves contain nasty-tasting alkaloids it does not get eaten by deer or rabbits and is considered toxic to humans and animals when ingested.

Helleborus orientalis late winter


Those same alkaloids can be a problem for people with sensitive skin so it is wise to wear gloves when working with hellebore. I trim the foliage back in late winter, at the start of March if there isn’t any snow cover, so that the emerging flower buds aren’t hidden by the old growth.

If Botrytis cinerea, a grey mold, was a problem on hellebore foliage then infected plant material should be removed in the fall so that it doesn’t overwinter.  Late winter is also a good time to apply a slow-release, balanced fertilizer that will ensure ‘blooms’ that will last for a month or more.


I say ‘blooms’ because what appears to be petals are actually tepals that protect the small, barely noticeable flower buds. Sepals are usually green but when they are similar in appearance and color to petals they are called tepals. Other plants that have colored tepals are Orchids, Day lilies, Lilies, Lily of the valley, Tulips, Magnolia and Tulip poplar.

On the hellebore the vintage-looking colors of the tepals range from a pure white to a dusky rose to a deep, almost black, plum. Most tepals become green-tinged as they age and many are veined, spotted, or blotched with shades of pink, purple, or red. The 2-3” ‘blooms’ generally hang or droop down so it is sometimes hard to see the nectaries that provide food for the early pollinators.

There are few insects that bother hellebore but one is the Hellebore aphid which will feed on sap from the flowers and foliage, excreting the honeydew that may lead to the growth of sooty mold. Cucumber mosaic virus can be vectored by feeding aphids and shows itself in light and dark green mottling on Hellebore foetidus.


Image by RHS



H. foetidus, also known as stinking hellebore or dungwort is found in the wild in southern and western Europe in addition to cottage gardens. Its foliage gives off a pungent smell when crushed and it has another insect pest particular to it, the Hellebore leaf miner, which, as its name suggests, will tunnel into the foliage creating the damage shown to the left.



There are many commercially available varieties of hellebore and hybridizing has created a color palate that now includes reds, grays, yellows, and greens. The Picotee variety have narrow margins of a darker color. Semi- and double-flowered hellebore have two or more extra rows of tepals and the anemone-centered variety have a ring of shorter curved petals closer to the center which drop off after pollination. A visit to your favorite nursery or garden center is sure to provide you with many selections.

Helleborus by Lisa Rivers

Image by Lisa Rivers

You can put them into the ground as soon as it is workable. As Hellebore do not grow more than 18” high and have flowers that hang down they are best appreciated when viewed from close proximity. Plant them in an area that you walk past often and enjoy them for years to come.

Susan Pelton

All images by Susan Pelton unless noted