bloodroot (2)

Bloodroot

“The sun was warm but the wind was chill.
You know how it is with an April day.
When the sun is out and the wind is still…”

Robert Frost

After an extremely dry 2016, spring is already bringing abundant showers here in Connecticut. Vernal pools in most areas have reached their full capacity of rainwater and snow melt. Streams are running strong and ponds that were so low last year are filling up. The warm February weather almost tricked some plants into budding out too early, but the snow and cold that came in early March nipped that process in the bud. Phoebes who had returned in early March were greeted with a foot of snow and freezing temperatures. But they survived. Now we are seeing April return once again, and with it should follow the heralds of warmer weather and longer days.

trout lilies Pamm Cooper photo

Trout lilies in open woods in April

Native willows and maples, such as the red maples, are blooming now and early native bees are availing themselves of the pollen and nectar they provide. Colletes inaequalis– small, handsome ground-nesting bees- are emerging from their winter pupation homes in the soil, where they have lived all their pre-adult lives. They are important pollinators of many early- flowering native plants and often form large colonies in open areas of lawns with sandy soils. They seldom sting, and by the time grass is mowed for the first time, these bees are usually no longer flying in lawn areas. Females dug holes, bring in pollen and nectar they put in a “cellophane “ bag they make, and lay an egg on top. The larva feed on that supply until they pupate, and will emerge as adults the next spring. Queen bumblebees should be out and about any time now as well.

Colletes inaequalis bee covered in pollen- willow 4-3-2017

Native Colletes inaequalis bee foraging on a willow flower

Spring peepers, out in late February for about a day just prior to a snow and freeze, have been giving a nightly chorus now for a couple of weeks. Wood frogs are singing and should be laying eggs any time now, along with spotted salamanders and the American toads.  Check out vernal pools for the floating egg masses of the wood frogs and the rounded masses of the salamander eggs stuck to twigs, stems and leaves under the water surface.

vernal pool reflections in April Pamm Cooper photo copyright 2017

Reflections on a vernal pool- with wood frog and spotted salamander eggs and young spotted salamander larvae swimming on right

Red trillium, Trillium erectum, should bloom around mid- April, if not before.  Tiny bluets, bloodroot and trout lilies also bloom April to May here. Bluets are also an important source of pollen and nectar for many pollinators and spring- flying butterflies such as the spring azure and tiger swallowtail. Dead nettles bloom by late April and receive visits from nay pollinators including honeybees, bumble bees and other native bees, syrphid and other flies and some butterflies.

Red trillium April Pamm Cooper photo

Red trillium

Birds have been singing their morning and evening songs for a while, and the one that sings the most- all day- is the song sparrow. Males sit on the tops of small trees and shrubs, singing to announce their territory and to find a mate. The wood ducks are here now. Look for them in woodland ponds where there is good cover from shrubs and small trees along the water’s edge. These are very shy ducks and often take flight at the tiniest snap of a twig, so stealthy moves and quiet are the way to see them. Check out the trail behind the Meigs Point Nature Center at Hammonasset State Park in late April. You may get to see small flocks of glossy ibis in the salt marsh area as they migrate through on their way north.

song sparrow april 13 2016

Song sparrow with its rusty breast patch

Mourning cloak butterflies may been seen now, especially where trees have sap flows from splits or wounds to the bark. They are seldom seen on flowers, but will obtain nutrients from dung, sap, mud and fermenting fruits. Eggs are laid in rings around twigs of willow, elm and poplars among other woody trees.

Mourning cloak on sap flow from freshly cut tree stump in early April

Mourning cloak butterfly obtaining sap in April from a freshly cut tree stump

bumblebee on purple deadnettle

Bumblebee on dead nettle flower

When you go out, listen for the raucous calls of pileated woodpeckers as they find mates and establish territories. Don’t forget to look down occasionally and you can find all sorts of insects and plants that might be missed otherwise. And check out the flowers of skunk cabbages for the insects that pollinate them. Stop, look and listen whenever and wherever you go, even if it is in your own backyard. Maybe you will agree with Albert Einstein-

“ Joy in looking and comprehending is nature’s most beautiful gift.”

 
Pamm Cooper                                 All photos copyrighted by Pamm Cooper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

reflections in a vernal pool showing spotted salamander eggs left, wood frog eggs top, and spotted salamander larva to the right. April 10, 2013 Photo Pamm Cooper

reflections in a vernal pool showing spotted salamander eggs left, wood frog eggs top, and spotted salamander larva to the right. April 10, 2013 Photo Pamm Cooper

Vernal pools are seasonally fresh- water flooded depressions, usually filling with water in the spring as water tables rise in the spring. Although some depressions are filled in the fall, and may be referred to as “ autumnal pools “, the vernal pool in Connecticut contains water for about two months during the growing season. It typically has no outlet stream, and no fish populations are found in them. Most years, vernal pools dry out completely by late summer.

Vernal pools are rich breeding areas for many amphibians. Some of these amphibians need to complete at least part of their life cycle in the pools before reaching adulthood. Look for eggs of the various amphibians that will be born there starting in late March through early April. Among them are wood frogs, spotted salamanders, marbled salamanders and gray tree frogs, and to some extent spring peepers, American toads and red-spotted newts.

Spotted salamanders and wood frogs lay their eggs in vernal pools in the spring, and the nymphs need time to develop into air- breathing amphibians before the pools dry up. A droughty spring can mean disaster if the early stages of the amphibians still have gills and the pool dries up. This spring started off droughty, but recent rains may have helped prolong the length of water retention in Connecticut pools.

If you are adventurous, spend some time looking under logs and leaves in areas surrounding vernal pools, even after the pools have dried up. You may be rewarded with some good finds. On one recent log rolling venture, my sister and I uncovered many red- backed salamanders. The day after a rain you may find red- spotted newt efts and box turtles, especially near woodland vernal pools.

The red- spotted newt has a complicated life- cycle. It hatches from an egg laid in the spring under decaying leaves in a pond, then lives as a carnivorous larvae with a finned tail and gills, much like the spotted salamander. But the red-spot undergoes metamorphosis into an eft form later in the summer where it has lungs and lives outside the water for several years. Then it undergoes a second metamorphosis into its final adult form where it finishes its life in the water.

Eft stage of the red- spotted newt photo by Pamm Cooper may 13, 2013

Eft stage of the red- spotted newt photo by Pamm Cooper may 13, 2013

Spotted salamanders on the other hand spend little of their time in the water. Eggs are laid in large clumps in vernal pools after adults migrate from burrows in the wood during winter rains. The aquatic form of this salamander can sometimes be mistaken for polliwogs by the casual observer. Their development into terrestrial forms depends upon the water temperature. The warmer it is, the faster these salamanders develop into the land- dwelling form. After they move to land, they are seldom seen as they are of a nocturnal habit, dwelling in hardwood forests and swamps. This salamander depends upon vernal pools or wetlands where no fish are found that would feed on the eggs and larvae.

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Wood frogs are among the first breeding animals to arrive at the vernal pool. Listen for their loud quacking and shortly after look for their Wood frogs lay eggs prolifically in vernal pools. The egg masses of wood frogs are usually attached to vegetation near the surface of the water and may-cover the surface of the pool if wood frogs are in abundance. They can survive in pools that dry up by August as the tadpole stage typically is completed by mid- June to mid-July in Connecticut.

Egg string of the American Toad Picture taken April 20, 2013 by Pamm Cooper

Egg string of the American Toad Picture taken April 20, 2013 by Pamm Cooper

There are many other things found in and around vernal pools that we can observe and appreciate. The next time you here incessant quacking in the woods in early spring, remember the wood frog. And think about all the drama about to unfold as the melting snow and rising water table provide the perfect environment for the unheralded amphibians of the woodlands.

Pamm Cooper

All pictures Copyrighted 2013 by Pamm Cooper