“Better to see something once than hear about it a thousand times”

  • Asian proverb

There are so many places of interest in our small state of Connecticut that we should never lack for something new to do, or even to  do  again, if one really enjoyed it the first time. Here are some of the excursions that I have really enjoyed- and some of them have the added attraction of being free-of-charge, once you get there.

The West Cornwall Covered bridge is a wooden covered truss bridge built over the Housatonic River in Cornwall, Connecticut. You can drive over the bridge or walk over and take in scenic views upstream and downstream. On the eastern side there is a paved walking trail that follows the river for several hundred yards up the river on the eastern bank. This bridge is found at the junction of routes 7 and 4.

looking upstream from the Cornwall covered bridge Pamm Cooper photo

looking upstream while midway across the Cornwall covered bridge

Kent Falls State Park, located on Route 7 in Kent, features a series of waterfalls that that cascade down 250 feet through the woods. The Falls Brook from the town of Warren is the stream that feeds this series of water falls, and it enters the Housatonic River a quarter mile away after completing its journey down. A hiking trail a quarter mile long is alongside the falls and, although it is steep, it is not a hard walk. There are scenic vantage points and steps built in places along the way.

Kent falls lower section Pamm Cooper photo

Kent Falls at its lowest section

spikenard

Spikenard abounds in the open woods alongside kent Falls

Also along route 7 in Kent is Bull’s Bridge, a covered bridge that opened in 1842 and which spans a gorge along the Housatonic River.  There is a hydroelectric dam outlet just upstream from the bridge that the water passes through with enormous power. There is a small trail along the river’s edge where the noise and power of the raging water can be viewed safely.

gorge below Bull'S Bridge

Gorge rapids just above Bull’s Bridge

The Thimble Islands are a group of small islands in Long Island Sound in the harbor of Stony Creek in Branford.  These islands are made up of pink granite bedrock, and they are actually the tops of hills that existed prior to the last ice age, rather than deposits of rubble that make up most islands that resulted from retreating glaciers. They are thus very stable islands and many are privately owned, and may have one to several summer homes on them.  There are tour boats that will take you on a 45 minute trip around the islands for under $20.00.

two of the thimble islands Pamm Cooper photo

Two of the Thimble Islands Branford, Ct.

A Thimble Island

Another of the Thimble Islands

Another good trip for people who don’t mind a boat ride and a little maritime history is the Light House Cruise out of New London. Taking approximately 2 hours, this trip is rich with history and scenic views along the Thames River and into Long Island Sound. Some of the lighthouses featured are the New London Harbor lighthouse, on the west entrance to New London Harbor, the Latimer reef lighthouse on Fisher’s Island Sound, and the Race Rock lighthouse, which is part of the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act.

Race Rock lighthouse Pamm Cooper photo

Race Rock Lighthouse

In Collinsville, there is an old factory, the Collins Company, which was a world-renowned manufacturer of cutting tools, like axes, machetes, picks and knives. Sited on the Farmington River, this picturesque factory opened in 1826. There is a trail for walking and biking along the Farmington River not too far from this old factory that can be accessed in various places on route 4.

collins company factory

Old Collins Company in Collinsville

Downtown Hartford has many points of interest including Bushnell Park, conceived by the Reverend Horace Bushnell and designed by Hartford native Frederick Law Olmsted. There are many beautiful specimen trees including the state champion turkey oak, and a double-trunked gingko. While at the park, you may want to ride the famous carousel, which is one of only three left in existence that feature the horses carved by Russian immigrants Stein and Goldstein. Downtown Hartford is within walking distance of the park and has many buildings of interest, including the blue windowed 18-story,skyscraper  at the northeast corner of Pearl and Trumbull streets.

State champ[ion turkey oak Quercus cerris Cirumference 17 feet Bushnell Park

State champion tree-turkey oak in Bushnell park

Carousel horse- Bushnell Park in Hartford

Carousel in Bushnell Park in Hartford

gold building reflections downtown Hartford pamm Cooper photo

Building reflected from the Gold Building windows in downtown Hartford

Blue glass skyscraper behind the Mechanics Savings Bank in downtown Hartford -Copyright Pamm Cooper 2013

Skyscraper with blue tinted windows on Pearl Street in Hartford- Pamm Cooper photo

Another good day trip is a visit to Harkness Park in Waterford. Featuring flower gardens, panoramic views of Long Island Sound, and the Roman Renaissance Classical Revival mansion of the Harkness family, this place has something for everyone. There are four 111 year old full thread leaf maple tress creating a stately grove near the owners’ dog cemetery, plus numerous themed gardens with statuary and other features. There is a stretch of beach where you can sit or take a walk, but no swimming is allowed, or you can fish if you like.

P1350371

Annual cutting garden at Harkness Park

There are many more places of interest in Connecticut that make for interesting day trips, and since we have such a small state, several destinations that are near each other can be undertaken in a single day. Old Wethersfield and Old Main Street in South Windsor both have wonderful old colonial era buildings, for instance, and are a hop, skip and jump away from each other. Most of the places and trips mentioned above require little hiking, and have either dramatic or peaceful sights and sounds unique to their place in the outdoors- like rushing water, views of the sound, boat horns and perhaps the fragrance of flowers.

Newberry rd S.W.

Farm on Newberry Road off historic Main Street in South Windsor

Pamm Cooper

 

 

goldenrod

One of many goldenrod species

Goldenrods, Solidago ssp., form one of the most interesting interrelationships between flora and fauna of the late-season flowering plants in New England. The name solidago is from two Latin words meaning ‘to make’ and ‘whole’, referring to its use as herbal remedies in the form of teas or compresses, among other uses. Goldenrods are perennial herbs that are members of the Asteraceae, or aster, family. Flowering from August through September, they are often found blooming together with Joe-Pye weeds and asters. The time of year that they bloom has made them a scapegoat for many allergy sufferers who believe they are to blame them for symptoms that are actually due to ragweed that flower at the same time.

 

honey bee on downy goldenrod Pamm Cooper

Honey bee on downy goldenrod.

 

Goldenrods naturally produce rubber, and Thomas Edison actually experimented with the cultivation process to increase the rubber content in the plants. George Washington Carver and Henry Ford devised a process to make a much needed rubber substitute from goldenrod during World War II. It was rather tacky and not as elastic as true rubber, but goldenrods and other native plants such as Asclepias and Chrysothamnus have rubber in sufficient quantity that may one day prove worthwhile. Tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima) had the most rubber content at 6.34 %.

Goldenrods have a unique type of inflorescence that consists of many tiny flowers that aggregate together in a flower head and form a ‘false flower’. The individual flowers are most commonly in the form of ray flowers or disk flowers. Identification of species is often done by observing the hairs on the seeds, which may be visible when the plant is still in flower. Goldenrods vary in height, with the tallest (Solidago altissima) at six feet. Some, such as sweet goldenrod (Solidago odora) have pleasant odors.

Joe pye and goldenrod Harkness Park 9-2-2018

Joe- pye weed and goldenrods blooming together at Harkness Park in Waterford, Connecticut

One of the most common goldenrods in New England is the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis). It is considered alleopathic to sugar maple seedlings, producing chemicals that inhibit their growth. Habitat is disturbed areas like meadows, fields or roadsides. This is a tall plant with hairy stems and a plume flower arrangement.

goldenrods and asters in a field

Asters and goldenrods growing together in a waste area

It is associated with the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) whose larva feed inside a round gall on the stem which is formed by the reaction of the plant to the larva’s saliva. You can easily find these galls when green or later in the season when stalks turn brown. The larva chew an exit hole before the plant tissue hardens up for the winter. In the spring, the adult fly will exit through this hole. Downy woodpeckers and chickadees will peck at these galls to access the larva, especially in harsh winters. Studies have shown the larger the larva inside the gall, the less likely it is to be parasitized by other insects or eaten by birds like downy woodpeckers in the winter. The goldenrod gall moth also causes a stem gall, but this is a spindle- shape rather than a ball. The caterpillar hatches from an egg laid the previous autumn and feeds its way into a stem.

goldenrod bunch gall and stem gall caused by the goldenrod Gall Fly (Eurosta solidaginis)

goldenrod bunch gall on left and stem gall on right, caused by the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis)

Licorice goldenrod (Solidago odora) has a licorice or anise scent and the leaves were used in a tea by the Cherokee for colds, coughs, and fevers. This plant is found in the southernmost parts of the New England states, but is absent in Maine. Found in woodlands, along roadsides, disturbed sites and old fields, the flowers have been used to make deep yellow dyes and attract beneficial insects such as lady beetles and lacewings.

White goldenrod (Solidago bicolor) is found at the edges of woodlands. It is also sometimes called ‘silverrod’ in reference to its white flowers. It is the only goldenrod with white flowers in the eastern part of the country. The stamens and pollen will give it a slightly yellow look. Sometimes the spectacular brown hooded owlet caterpillar can be found on this plant where it primarily eats the flower buds and flowers. Found more often on any goldenrods with longer flower spikes, this caterpillar is a favorite of many lepidopterists.

silver rod on the edge of woods Pamm Cooper

Silverrod at the edge of the woods.

Early goldenrod (Solidago juncea) gets its common name from its bloom time, which can be as much as a month prior to many other goldenrod species. This attractive, slender plant has a very delicate appearance and can be distinguished from other goldenrods by the lack of, or near lack of hairs on the stems and leaves. White-tailed deer, woodchucks, cottontail rabbits and livestock may feed on the plant if less desirable food is available.

Goldenrods provide a source of seeds for eastern goldfinch, tree, swamp and song sparrows as well as some migrating warblers such as the yellow- rumped warblers. Mice and other rodents eat the seeds throughout the winter and have a better time of it when seed heads are pressed down against the ground by heavy snows.

asteroid

The asteroid caterpillar

Any insects still around in late summer that have an interest in flowers may be found on goldenrods, especially pollen and nectar seekers and their predators. Some of the many insects and other arthropods that rely on goldenrods for survival are bees, wasps, butterflies, moths, flies, beetles, grasshoppers and spiders. Many of these visit for the pollen and nectar often in shorter supply as the season winds down. Migratory butterflies, especially along their shoreline routes, depend upon goldenrods for food sources as they travel south for the winter. Bloom periods are extended for at least two months as different species of goldenrods bloom in succession or coincide with each other.

gray hairstreak on goldenrod

Gray hairstreak butterfly

Black and margined blister beetles are often found on these plants in the late summer and early fall. Many beneficial insects, such as soldier beetles and assassin bugs use the flowers as either food sources or hideouts where they wait to ambush other insects. If you see a butterfly hanging upside down without moving, check and see if an ambush bug or crab spider is feeding on it. Caterpillars such as the asteroid and flower moth caterpillars, aphids, tarnished plant bugs, and many other insects feed on flowers, stems and leaves. Wasps, goldenrod and crab spiders, praying mantids, lacewings, ambush bugs, assassin bugs, spined soldier bugs and birds prey on insects that visit or live on the plants. Cucumber beetles also feed on goldenrod pollen. Some flies cause galls on stems and upper foliage as their larvae feed.

brown hooded owlet caterpillar on goldenrod from Belding September 3 2015

brown hooded owlet caterpillar on goldenrod

Chinese mantids also hang out around goldenrods, and often lay their egg masses on its stems. Look for these in the winter if heavy snows have not mashed the plants into the ground. I sometimes take a stem with the mantid egg case and stick it in my garden. The mantids usually emerge by mid- May, and they disperse quickly

mantids emerging from egg case on goldenrod stem 5-20-12

Mantid egg cases are often found on goldenrods where the adult females were hunting the year before. These are mantids just hatching

.

There is a great interconnection between goldenrods and vertebrates and invertebrates, and nature reveals such things to the careful observer. If you happen upon some goldenrod, or seek it out on purpose, just a few moments of careful observation will be rewarded with a peek into the drama that is on display in a simple stand of yellow flowers.

By Pamm Cooper, UConn Home & Garden Education Center

 

Goldenrods and Spotted Joe-pye at the entrance to Harkness Park in Waterford September14, 2015

Goldenrods and Spotted Joe-pye at the entrance to Harkness Park in Waterford September14, 2015

My tent stands in a garden
Of aster and goldenrod,
Tilled by the rain and the sunshine,

And sown by the hand of God, –   Bliss William Carman

Goldenrods, Solidago ssp., form one of the most interesting interrelationships between flora and fauna of the late- season flowering plants in New England.  The name solidago is from two Latin words meaning  “ to make” and “ whole”, referring to its use as herbal remedies in the form of teas or compresses, among other uses. Goldenrods are perennial herbs that are members of the Asteraceae, or aster, family. Flowering in August and September they are often found blooming together with the Joe-pyes and asters. The time of year that they bloom has made them a scapegoat for many allergy sufferers who believe  they are to blame them for symptoms that are actually due to the ragweeds that flower at the same time.

The colorful brown-hooded owlet caterpillar that feed on goldenrod flower buds as well as leaves

The colorful brown-hooded owlet caterpillar that feed on goldenrod flower buds as well as leaves

Goldenrods naturally produce rubber, the Solidago altissima, or Tall Goldenrod being the champ at 6.34.%  rubber content. Thomas Edison experimented with a cultivation process to increase rubber content in these plants. George Washington Carver and Henry Ford devised a process to make a much- needed rubber substitute during World War II using goldenrods.

Goldenrods have a unique type of inflorescence that consists of many tiny flowers that aggregate together in a flower head and form a “ false flower”. The individual flowers are most commonly in the form of ray flowers or disk flowers. Identification of species is often done by observing the hairs on the seeds, which may be visible when the plant is still in flower. Goldenrods vary in height, with the tallest (Solidago altissima) at six feet. Some, such as Solidago odora (Sweet Goldenrod) have pleasant odors.

Honey bee on Downy Goldenrod

Honey bee on Downy Goldenrod

One of the most common goldenrods in New England is the Canada goldenrod, Solidago Canadensis. It is considered alleopathic to sugar maple seedlings, producing chemicals that inhibit their growth. Habitat is disturbed areas- meadows and fields or roadsides. This is a tall plant with hairy stems and a plume flower arrangement. It is associated with the goldenrod  gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, whose larva feed inside a round gall on the stem which is formed by the reaction of the plant to the larva’s saliva. You can easily find these galls when green or later in the season when stalks turn brown. The larva chew an exit hole before the plant tissue hardens up for the winter. In the spring, the adult fly will exit through this hole. Downy woodpeckers and chickadees will peck at these galls to access the larva, especially in harsh winters.

Goldenrod bunch gall and goldenrod fly gall.

Goldenrod bunch gall and goldenrod fly gall.

Tiger Swallowtail on Canada Goldenrod

Tiger Swallowtail on Canada Goldenrod

Licorice goldenrod, Solidago odora, has a licorice or anise, scent and the leaves were used in a tea by the Cherokee for colds, coughs, and fevers. This plant is found in the southernmost parts of the New England states, but is absent in Maine. Found in woodlands, along roadsides, disturbed sites and old fields, the flowers have been used to make deep yellow dyes and attract beneficial insects such as lady beetles and lacewings.

Solidago bicolor, white goldenrod, is found at the edges of woodlands. It is also sometimes called “ silver rod “ in reference to its white flowers, the only goldenrod with white flowers in the eastern part of the country. The stamens and pollen will give it a slightly yellow look. Sometimes the spectacular brown hooded owlet caterpillar can be found on this plant where it primarily eats the flower buds and flowers. Found more often on goldenrods with longer flower spikes, this caterpillar is a favorite  of many lepidopterists.

Silverrod on woodland edge

Silverrod on woodland edge

Solidago juncea, or early goldenrod, gets its common name from its bloom time, which can be as much as a month prior to many other goldenrod species. This attractive, slender plant has a very delicate appearance, and can be distinguished from other goldenrods by the lack of, or near lack, on the stems and leaves. White-tailed deer, woodchucks, cottontail rabbits and livestock may feed on the plant if less desirable food is available.

Goldenrods provide a source of seeds for Eastern Goldfinch, Tree, Swamp and Song Sparrows as well as some migrating warblers such as the Yellow- rumped warblers.

There are many insects and other arthropods that rely on goldenrods for survival. Bees, wasps, butterflies, moths, flies, cucumber beetles and many others visit flowers for nectar and pollen. Blister beetles are often found on these plants in the late summer and early fall. Butterflies of many species benefit from the long nectar season provided by goldenrods that provide bloom in succession for two months. Migratory butterflies especially depend on this food source as they travel south. Many beneficial insects, such as soldier beetles and assassin bugs use the flowers as either food sources or hideouts, where they wait to ambush other insects. If you see a butterfly hanging upside down without moving, check and see if an ambush bug or crab spider is feeding on it. Caterpillars such as the Asteroid and Brown-hooded Owlet, aphids, tarnished plant bugs, and many other insects feed on flowers, stems and leaves. Wasps, goldenrod and crabr spiders, praying mantids, lacewings, ambush bugs, assassin bugs, spined soldier bugs and birds prey on insects that visit or live on the plants.

Asteroid Caterpillar- named for the family of plants it feeds on.

Asteroid Caterpillar- named for the family of plants it feeds on.

Chinese mantids also hang out around goldenrods, and often lay their egg masses on its stems. Look for these in the winter if heavy snows haven’t mashed the plants into the ground. I sometimes take a stem with the mantid egg case and stick it in my garden. The mantids usually emerge by mid- May.

There is a great interconnection between goldenrods, vertebrates and invertebrates, and nature reveals such things to the careful observer. If you happen upon some goldenrod, or seek it out on purpose, just a few moments of careful observation will be rewarded with a peek into the drama that is on display in a simple stand of yellow flowers.

Pamm Cooper                               All photos © 2015 Pamm Cooper