Gardening


When I first started gardening in earnest, years ago, it was so delightful to have plants take to their new quarters and spread with abandon. Money was tight and moving successively into three homes with minimal landscaping left a lot of garden and foundation planting space to fill. Plants were donated by friends, purchased at garden club plant sales, at end of season sales at garden centers and started from seed.

The first gardens at my present location were started 29 years ago. Just as I have grown older, and I hate to say it but broader, so have my gardens. That 6-inch Gentsch white hemlock in the White Garden is now close to 15 feet; same with the Rose of Sharon seedling from my sister’s garden. Annemarie’s one red-leaved canna now forms a perimeter around the porch and Flora’s Tatarian aster is now duking it out with the hibiscus. What’s a gardener to do?

Gentsch white hemlock

Gentsch white hemlock. Photo by dmp, UConn

There are two ways to look at this situation and each probably has equal merit. Let the plants have their ways and the fittest will survive. If anything, larger or more robust plants will crowd out underperformers and surely form a dense enough patch to keep most weeds at bay.

On the other hand, there is something to be said for “A place for everything, everything in its place”, Ben Franklin (1706-1790). Depending on the plants and the particular situation, some have to go, others be reduced in volume, and some can just be appreciated for their expansive nature.

It is good to be tolerant of many things but even tolerance has its limits when a particular plants tries to usurp land from its neighbors. These overachievers need to be monitored and banned from certain garden situations, including a few in my yard.

There are several plants in particular that I’ve been waging war on over the years. The first is a magenta spiderwort (Tradescantia). There are two very well behaved spiderworts in my gardens, one white and one light purple. They are relatively upright clump formers. The purple one even reblooms. So at our garden club’s plant sale, I picked up a magenta one thinking it could be a companion to the evening primroses with their ruby tipped foliage and sunny yellow flowers. Then, the magenta spiderwort started popping up all over the place – in with the purple spiderwort, amongst the epimediums, and into the sedums. The stalks are a brighter green than the purple spiderwort so several times a year I have gone through this bed trying to weed out the magenta plants but it is almost impossible to get out the whole rootstock and I’ve come to the conclusion that the whole bed just needs to be dug up and replanted.

Spiderwort and hosta

Purple spiderwort with a magenta stem poking through the hosta. Photo by dmp, UConn.

Another plant I brought home from our plant sale a few years ago was a doronicum, commonly called Leopard’s Bane. I thought the early, bright, lemon yellow, daisy-like flowers would liven up my woodland garden. The person who brought it assured me that it did not spread that rapidly and it was easy to pluck out any unwanted divisions. I had even checked in a few books and on a couple of websites, and the ruling was this plant was non-invasive. I beg to disagree. While not positive, I believe it is D. caucasium, with its heart-shaped leaves, rhizomes and 18-inch tall flower stems. One single plant has now taken over at least 400 square feet and I never know until the next spring where more plants will pop up. Since there are established azaleas in this bed, I just keep weeding these out. Perhaps a different species or cultivar would give me cheery yellow spring color without taking over the neighborhood.

Doronicum

Leopard’s bane or doronicum spreading through the woodland garden. Photo by dmp, UConn.

An herbalist friend thought that a butterbur (Petasites) would be a striking plant next to the small pond in the corner of our property. The large, silvery-green rhubarb-sized leaves definitely are eye-catching. The unique early season flower stalks are curiously but delightfully covered with buds that look like button mushrooms. My friend said this plant was used to treat headaches but with its spreading tendencies, it is giving me one. Like all plants, it is expanding logarithmetically and I’ve been pulling up the new starts as they begin wandering off their allotted acreage.

Butterbur leaves

Butterbur leaves. Photo by dmp, UConn.

In the white garden, I designated a sizable piece of property, around 6 by 6 feet to a white snakeroot or bugbane (Cimicifuga). It has pest-free (as you might guess from the name), attractive, compound leaves and stems, and spires of bottlebrush, creamy white flowers that mature to creamy white, poisonous berries. This plant is native and attracts quite a few pollinators when in bloom even though the flowers are not the most pleasant smelling to us humans. Supposedly, a clump former, it too is migrating into the sweet Cicely and the goat’s-beard and has to be constantly kept in check.

white baneberry actea

White snakeroot with white berries. Photo by dmp, UConn.

Other plants I am constantly trying to contain include lily of the valley, a red-leaved, yellow flowering lysimachia and a white meadow anemone to mention a few. I guess I should be coming up with some garden renovation plans for next spring and also, more carefully researching future plant purchases.

Happy Gardening!

Dawn

praying mantid 2

Praying mantids have hatched and are busy staking their claim in all areas of the garden looking for any insect to eat. They are fun to watch and photograph. So glad I noticed their egg masses and relocated them when cutting back the garden last fall.

clove current berries

The clove currant is producing berries, first green then ripening to black. The birds are eating them faster than I can take a photo them almost. Good plant for wildlife, and a hand-me-down plant from my husband’s grandmother’s home. The Latin name is Ribes odoratum for those doing a search to find one.

swallowtail butterfly

This swallowtail butterfly was very busy feeding on the nectar of the very floriferous bottlebrush buckeye blooming on campus. Bottlebrush buckeye, Aesculus parviflora, is a fabulous, large shrub which sends up panicles of white flowers with red anthers and pinkish filaments.

spinach bolting 2

The summer’s heat is causing the cool weather crops of the spring to bolt and go to seed. Once this happens, the leaves become bitter and plants should be pulled and composted. Planting fall crops of carrots, beets, peas, kale or beans make good use of then now available space in the garden.

Robber fly

This robber fly was resting in the garden, probably waiting for an easy insect meal. They are predatory on all types of insects and considered a beneficial insect.

cross striped caterpillar on cale

If your kale or other cole crops are being eaten and showing a lacy appearance of holy leaves, look for the cross-striped cabbage worm. One caterpillar can eat quite a lot. Bt is a good control measure when they are small, or insecticidal soap. Rotate where brassica plants are located next year, and grow under a row cover to keep the adult moth from laying her eggs on the leaves.

garlic

Garlic is ready to be harvested during July, once half of the leaves have turned brown. After carefully loosening the soil with a spade, pull the garlic bulbs by the stems and dry on an open rack in out of the sun and under cover for three weeks. A shed or garage are best for the drying. After they are dry, brush off the dirt, cut off the roots close to the bottom of the bulb, and cut back the stem end leaving about one inch. Store in the home in a dry, dark spot. Save the largest bulbs for planting next October through November.

gypsym moth females and egg masses

Gypsy moth adults are busy mating. Females do not fly, only able to crawl. The males are flitting around, flying to females to mate. Females will lay the buff colored egg masses which will last through the fall, winter and spring, to hatch next summer. Egg masses can be  crushed or scraped into a container of soapy water.

-Carol Quish

All photos are copyrighted by Carol Quish, UConn.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

catalpa flowers 6-25-18 Pamm Cooper photo

Flowers of the Catalpa tree

 “ Nature gives to every  time and season some beauties of its own

– Charles Dickens

After a cool, wet spring and a similar June, July came in like a jalapeno pepper and is staying that way for a while, at least. It is a good thing that our native plants are adaptable to the swings in both temperature and water availability fluctuations. I am also a native New England carbon-based anatomical wonder, but I have a more difficult time with excessive heat coupled with high humidity. The one good thing about this time of year, though, is the wealth of interesting flora and fauna that provide a little excitement, if that is what you need, as you venture outside.

Bittersweet and an old truck

Bittersweet growing through the cab of an abandoned truck

Some of the most spectacular caterpillars are works of progress at this time, and also in late summer and early fall. Daggers, sphinx and prominent caterpillars are always interesting finds for me. They get larger than spring-feeding caterpillars, and often have warts, knobs, hairs and colors that make them stand out. Furculas, for instance, are prominents that have anal prolegs that act more like tails. When disturbed, they flail them about and that action may drive predators away. Sphinx caterpillars usually have horns on the rear end and may get quite large before they pupate. Most are not pests, but beware of the tobacco hornworm if you grow tomatoes.

wavy lined heterocampa lookimg toward the sky Pamm Cooper copyrighted

A wavy-lined heteocampa, a prominent moth caterpillar, looking toward the sky

early instar blinded sphinx July 4 2018 Pamm Cooper photo

Very small blinded sphinx caterpillar

Most milkweeds bloom Between June and late July. This year common milkweed is almost done none in many areas. Soon the swamp milkweeds will bloom, though. Milkweeds are important sources of nectar and pollen for many bees, moths and butterflies, and many other insects feed on the foliage and flowers. Check any of the milkweeds, including native and non-native butterfly weed, for the monarch butterfly caterpillars.

fritillary and skippers 7-11-14 on swamp milkweed

Fritillary and skipper butterflies on swamp milkweed in July

Most birds have raised their first broods, and many are started a second one. pIleated woodpeckers may be seen directing their young to food sources. These include trees and logs in which carpenter ants are actively feeding. Although  pileateds are very large, if not for their raucous calls and loud drumming that give them away, they can be elusive to find unless you know where they live.

Pileated Case Mountain Pamm Cooper photo

Pileated woodpecker

Butterflies have not been as abundant as last year, especially the red admirals and painted ladies. Since these are migratory, one wonders if they were held up in the southern areas and now the second generation be arrive later on.  Hairstreaks and skippers also were few and far between, but now the summer ones are starting to put in an appearance. I was delighted and surprised to have a white admiral butterfly visit the flowers in my backyard gardens this week. In all the time I have spent in the outdoors, I have only ever seen three of these, and this one was a hybrid, likely a result of a red-spotted purple/white admiral matchup.

white admiral cross backyard bush honeysuckle 6-30-2018 IIPamm Cooper

White admiral hybrid

Some summer flowering trees like the exotic mimosa, or hardy silk tree, should bloom in July. We are glad to have one of these on the UConn Campus, just outside of the Wilbur Cross building. Its flowers are pink, fragrant and showy, and to my mind look like fluffs of cotton candy. Catalpa trees finish blooming in early July, dropping their white flowers to the ground like a summer snow.

hardy silk tree UConn Wilbur

Hardy silk tree, or Mimosa

Wildflowers that begin bloom in July include the Canada lily, Lilium canadense, and the wood lily. Both attract butterflies and are a striking hint of color among ferns and herbaceous plants in sunny areas. In the woods, look for Indian pipe, a surprising member of the blueberry family which has no chlorophyll. White in color, you can see how it got its nickname- the ghost plant.

indian pipe

Indian pipe

Canada Lily Lilium canadense 7-14-13

Canada lily Lilium canadense

Fawns are here, being carefully trained by their mothers to be sure to sample hostas, yews, phlox and other tasty garden plants. Knowing this behavior inspired me to put plants that the deer are known not to like, at least for this moment in time, on the edges of my garden beds. I tuck the plants they seem to like to nibble on far enough behind the plants they will not eat, that so far- three years now- they leave stuff alone.

When we get afternoon or early evening thunderstorms, remember to look for rainbows once the sun starts to shine again. If there is going to be a rainbow, it will appear where the storm is still passing through, but the sun has to be behind you.  We can get some great clouds any time of year, so don’t forget to look up now and then, especially in the early morning and late evening around sunset.

rainbow with faint double above

Rainbow over Bolton, Ct. July 3, 2018

Enjoy your time outdoors, even if it is time spent in your own backyard. You can see good and interesting things on nature shows and the weather channels, but it is far better to see it for yourself. The excitement never ends…

Pamm Cooper

feed me Pamm Coope rphoto

Don’t forget to stay cool!

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“Fortunate is the man who knows how to use yarrow in the last days”
Attributed to Brigham Young

Brigham Young was born into a farming community in Whitingham, Vermont in 1802. Like many people at that time he would have been well-acquainted with the use of plants for medicinal purposes. Yarrow in particular has many medicinal and culinary purposes that have used for centuries. Its astringent properties led to it being used to reduce the flow of blood from wounds and the names herbal militaris, staunchweed, allheal, and bloodwort. In fact, legend says that it was used by Achilles’s soldiers on the battleground of Troy. It is that legend that gave us the Latin name for yarrow: Achillea millefolium.

It interested me to learn that since the second century BC yarrow has been used by the Chinese for divination of the I Ching. Diviners prefer dried stalks from locally gathered yarrow as they feel they will be more in-tune with it. Even better are stalks harvested from spiritually important sites such as a Confucian temple. This practice of divination is still widely used today.

In North America yarrow was used by many Native American peoples. The Navajo chewed it to relieve earaches, the Cherokee made a tea to reduce fever and aid sleep, and the Ojibwe, in addition to those uses, burned it for ceremonial purposes. They also gave it to their horses as a stimulant although the ASPCA says that yarrow is toxic to horses, dogs, and cats. For a small number of humans, it occasionally causes allergic skin irritations and photosensitivity.

For the rest of the population, yarrow has so many diverse uses. Let me start with its attractiveness to pollinators. As an umbrellated plant, that is one that has a flower head that is in the form of an open, flat-topped cluster, it is a convenient landing pad for many insects.

These white, yellow, or pink flower heads contain masses of minute, 5-petaled flowers. It is this that gives yarrow the second part of its Latin name, millefolium, or thousand-leaf or petal.

Millefolium can also refer to the many very fine, feathery leaves that adorn the yarrow plant. These lacy alternately arranged, fern-like leaves, can be dried and then steeped in hot water for a ‘tea’. The stripped stems can be boiled in water for 20 minutes and then sautéed in butter as an addition to a salad.  Yarrow leaves and flowers were part of an herbal mixture called gruit that was used as a substitute for hops in the production of beer during the Middle Ages, mostly in the Netherlands, Belgium, and western Germany.

Leaf close-up

In researching yarrow, I came across several mentions of yarrow jelly so of course I needed to make it. I harvested 2 cups of flower heads early one morning, rinsing them and then placing them into a steeping carafe along with freshly boiled water.

I let the mixture brew for an hour before draining it through two layers of cheesecloth. No need for any little insects to be involved in the jelly-making process.

The jelly-making method that I use calls for adding lemon juice and calcium water to the strained liquid. To my astonishment, as I stirred in the lemon juice into the yarrow ‘tea’ the color changed from a dull amber to pink! It turns out that the acid in lemon juice will turn pink when a molecule called an anthocyanin is introduced to it.  Anthocyanin is present in red, blue, and purple flowers including the deep pink yarrow that I used.

Unfortunately, the resulting cooked jelly did not retain that pink color that I love in the blossoms and that is so attractive to insects like the drone and hover flies that recently visited.

A tiny grasshopper nymph  in the species Melanoplus let me get very close to capture his image, jumping away only at the last second.

Grasshopper nymph

Looking a bit lower and deeper into the foliage I saw the tiniest of field ants moving among the feathery leaves. He was not alone.

Field ant (Formica spp).

Nestled in the leaf axil was a spittlebug. No bigger than the head of a pin, the adult Clastoptera lineatocollis was well hidden.

Spit bug 3

The video is of a spittlebug nymph feeding on another plant, covering itself with the foamed-up plant sap.

The foamy ‘spit’ not only hides the nymph from predators and parasites it provides a unique protection from the light that might dry it out.

Further up, an Eastern harvestman spider, Leiobunum vittatum, lay in wait for an unsuspecting red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. I hope that the harvestman enjoyed his lunch for although one spider mite won’t do too much damage as it sucks out the contents of individual plant cells, an infestation of hundreds can seriously affect the vigor of a plant. Its good to see that a beneficial spider is taking care of that for me. Other beneficial insects that are attracted to yarrow include lady beetles and parasitic wasps such as the Braconid wasp.

If you don’t have yarrow in your flower beds yet I recommend it as a lovely, delicate-looking perennial that brings a touch of antiquity to any site. And here is one more thought from Brigham Young that speaks to the gardener in all of us:

“Beautify your gardens, your houses, your farms; beautify the city. This will make us happy, and produce plenty.”

Susan Pelton

If you grow leafy greens in your garden, it’s likely that you grow spinach. It can be a little (or more) disappointing to pop out to the garden to harvest some only to find that some of the leaves have damage in the form of whitish winding or blotchy patterns as shown below.

 

These are the handiwork of the spinach (Pegomya hyoscyami) or beet (P. betae) leafminers. On spinach, it’s most likely the spinach leafminer but their biology and damage is pretty much the same. Beet leafminers prefer to lay their eggs on beets if they’re available. In my garden, both plants are present so I think I’ve got the spinach species because the beets are not affected.

This pest overwinters in the soil as a pupa right near the plants it developed on the previous season. In the spring from roughly late April through mid May, adult flies emerge, mate and lay eggs. This is the best time to apply an insecticide if you’re going to because you need to intercept the tiny maggots between the time they hatch and the time they burrow into the interior of the leaves. This is a very short window of time. Scout for the clusters of tiny white eggs (visible to the naked eye) on leaf undersides.

spinachLMeggs.JBoucher

Spinach leafminer eggs. Photo: J. Boucher, UConn

 

Alternatives to insecticides for the home garden include crushing the eggs, removing leaves with eggs or mines/larvae and disposing of them in sealed bags in the trash, and crop rotation combined with the use of floating row covers for the next crop. Another option for infested leaf disposal is to bury them deeply in your compost pile where they will not survive.

SpinachLMmaggot.JBoucher

Spinach leafminer maggot (larva). Photo by J. Boucher, UConn

It’s important to keep in mind that the life cycle of the leafminers is only 30-40 days long so there can be 3-4 generations per year and they can overlap. If you have damage in your spring crop and are planning on a midseason/fall crop, move the spinach, beets and chard to a different area and cover prior to adult emergence with floating row cover to exclude the adult flies. Adults are tiny, hairy gray flies about 5-7mm long.

Image result for spinach leafminer adults

Adult spinach leafminer (Whitney Cranshaw photo, Bugwood.org).

In beets, moderate damage will not affect the development of the root crop. This pest is most important in plants grown for edible greens. Having said that, severe damage in beet leaves can result in poor root development.

By Joan Allen

This time of year finds the air in many Connecticut locations replete with the soft scent of roses. While this light but alluring fragrance might conjure up pleasant musings of that past, present or future summer romances, in reality it springs from an obnoxious, invasive shrub, the multiflora rose.

multiflora blossom

Multiflora rose blossoms.

Multiflora roses hail from Asia and were brought to the U.S. around 1860 as ornamental plants and to serve as rootstocks in rose breeding efforts. Later in the 1930s, they along with several other quick growing, Asian plants such as bush honeysuckle and autumn olive were recommended for erosion control, wildlife habitat improvements and even living fences. The use of multiflora rose and the like was even encouraged by the newly formed USDA Soil Conservation Service. These non-natives were planted throughout the northeast and Midwest and it wasn’t until the 1960s that conservationists began sounding the alarm about their invasive nature. Their use was still encouraged for a decade or two longer. Now multiflora roses are classified as a noxious weed in many states.

multiflora rose thicket

Multiflora rose thicket.

It is fairly easy to identify multiflora roses right now as its long arching stems or canes can easily reach 6 to 15 feet in length. A single shrub may have a somewhat pendulous appearance but more often colonies of multiflora roses clamber over each other and up anything growing near them including other large shrubs or trees. From late May through mid-June the plants are covered with clusters or corymbs of 5-petaled white or sometimes pale pink, fragrant flowers. The individual blossoms are three-quarters to one and a half inches in diameter and when fertilized go on to produce red rose hips in the late summer.

multiflora up tree

Multiflora rose scrambling up a tree.

I’m not sure who counted them but several sources attest to a large multiflora rose plant being capable of producing 500,000 or more rose hips. The quarter-inch rose hips linger throughout the winter and serve as a food source primarily for birds who end up spreading the seeds via their droppings – just in case you might be wondering why there is a rose sprouting amidst your perennials. Seeds can remain viable for 10 to 20 years, germinating when conditions are right.

multiflora rose hips

Multiflora rose hips, Photo by dmp.

The pinnately compound leaves usually have 7 leaflets but that number may vary from 5 to 11. The leaves are a glossy green, alternate and have a fringed stipule at the base of each leaf. The long canes are covered with recurved thorns making gloves mandatory for handling this plant.

multiflora 7 leaflets 2

The pinnately compound leaves of the multiflora rose typically have 7 leaflets.

Aside from the thorns, what makes the multiflora rose so obnoxious? It displaces native plants! Multiflora roses can reproduce by seed, suckers and tip layering. Because the birds eat the seeds, they can be dispersed quite a distance away from the parent plant. As the plant sends up new suckers or stems, each is capable of producing flowers and more rose hips. Large areas can easily be colonized by this plant which effectively competes for water, nutrients and light making these necessities less and less available to native plants whose numbers dwindle.

multiflora rose seedling

Multiflora rose seedling.

Also, plants leaf out earlier than many of our natives – just like Japanese barberry does. Early leaves means plants get a jumpstart on photosynthesis for earlier growth and vigor. Multiflora rose can grow in sun or part shade, and in moist or dry spots.

As far as I am aware, the multiflora rose has no native predators. Deer and woodchucks leave it alone. I have not even found slugs on this plant. There are 2 non-native insects that offer some control – the rose stem girdler beetle and the rose seed chalid wasp. Rose stem girdler beetles lay their eggs on the stems. After hatching, the larvae enter the stems and feed in effect girdling them. Stems may bend or break as their inner components are consumed by the larvae. This insect can attack garden and native roses as well as brambles.

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Rose stem girdler damage. Photo taken by James W. Armine Jr., West Virginia University, Bugwood.org.

The rose seed chalid wasp was imported from Japan and feeds on developing seeds. Fewer seeds maturing means less new plants will sprout reducing the infestation to some degree.

One native virus offers some control of the multiflora rose. The rose rosette virus (RRV) is spread by the tiny eriophid mite. It can kill a rose bush in 2 to 3 years. This virus causes growths known as ‘witches brooms’ to form that look like a cluster of stems squashed together. Usually they are a distinctive reddish or purplish color. Over time, it is hoped that the virus will slowly infect more and more multiflora roses. A problem with RRV though is that it can also infect native and garden roses, plums and other rose family species like apples. More effective eradication tools might be physical control and/or chemical herbicides.

RRVClemson

Rose rosette virus from Clemson University.

So how did we get in this situation? Blame it on the Dust Bowl. In the early 1930s, a persistent drought in the Great Plains caused massive crop failures and the exposed soil was picked up by the winds and blown in great clouds towards the east. One immense, blackening storm descended on the capital buildings in Washington D.C. on May 11, 1934. This spurred the federal government into decisive action and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, with congressional support, created the Soil Erosion Service, later to be renamed the Soil Conservation Service.

dustphoto1_2_a from USDA

Dust storm approaching Elkhart, KS, May 1937 from Library of Congress

One of the goals of this program was to protect our land resources from the devastating effects of erosion and one way to do this was to revegetate bare areas. A number of what we now know to be invasive plants like the multiflora rose were promoted because they grew so well and fast. About the only native plant that comes to mind when thinking about a quick growing one is poison ivy. All the thugs in my gardens are non-natives.

They say hindsight is 20:20. We can’t always foresee the results down the road from the choices we make now. But one thing is clear. Our native ecosystems are more fragile and more important than we might suspect and we should do all we can to protect them.

Dawn P.

According to the language of flowers, the rose belongs to the month of June symbolizing love and passion, gratitude and appreciation. Well I am passionately in love with and greatly appreciate all of June’s flower blooms, including roses.

Rose, red climbing-1

Roses can be found in home gardens, public gardens and even commercial parking lot plantings, usually as tough shrub rose varieties needing little care. Hartford is the proud location of Elizabeth Park, the oldest municipal rose garden in the United States established in 1904. Within its boundaries are beds and arches filled with hundreds of rose plants loving tended by professionals and volunteers, all taking pride in creating a beautiful and scent filled space for all to enjoy. http://elizabethparkct.org/gardens-and-grounds.html

 

Check rose plants carefully as gypsy moth caterpillars are feeding on leaves currently. Hand pick off and kill the little buggers by squishing or dropping in a container of soapy water. Signs they were there and left are shown by them leaving their shed exoskeleton after they molt.

gypsy moth caterpillars and rose

Gypsy moth on rose leaf, C.QuishPhoto

gypsymoth molted exoskeleton

Gypsy moth caterpillar shed exoskeletons. A sign gypsy moths were here. CQuish photo

Not all roses are a considered a ‘bed of roses’ or a good thing. The multiflora rose, Rosa multiflora, is an invasive species of rose, overtaking and displacing native plants. It was introduced to the U.S. from Asia in 1866 for use as rootstock and later widely planted as hedgerows and living fences.  Due to its very thorny nature, animals did not attempt to cross. Multiflora roses can be identified by its fringed petioles which differ from most other rose species. When in mass  blossom, the make the June air incredibly sweet.

Rose, multiflower, C.Quish

Fringed petiole of multiflora rose, C.Quishphoto

A few other fabulous flowers caught my eye and camera lens this month so far. Lunchtime walk on the Storrs campus I found an unusual shrub in front the Castleman building. False indigo, Amorpha fruticosa, was sporting spires of purple and orange flowers similar to butterfly bush. I had never seen it before, and after researching its identity, I am glad I haven’t as the CT Invasive Plant Working Group has it listed as ‘Potentially Invasive’. It seems well behaved in the restricted spot surrounded by buildings and pavement, but pretty still the same.

False indigo bush cquish

False indigo, CQuish photo

The perennial Helen Elizabeth Oriental poppy is a lighter pink, eschewing the brazen orange color of traditional oriental poppies. Helen Elizabeth is softer on the eyes and blooms a little bit later than the orange one.

 

Annual poppies are just beginning to bloom in my garden. If you let them go to seed and collect the seed once the pods go brown, dry and rattle, you will have an incredible amount of seed to save, share or spread the beauty in other areas.

 

Foxgloves, Digitalis sp, are shooting up their towers of flowers in different colors. Some species are biennial and others are perennial. The spots on the throats of the flowers are believed to be nectar guides showing the bees and other pollinators the way in to find the location of the nectar.

Visit local, independent garden centers and nurseries for unusual plants not found in the big box stores or chain centers. I found the annual Popcorn Plant, Cassia didymobotrya, whose leaves smell like buttered popcorn when stroked, at Tri-County Greenhouse on Rt. 44 in Storrs Mansfield. A treasure trove of unknown annuals and surprising perennials, and large variety of tomatoes and vegetables were all over the sales yard. I especially love the philosophy of the place hiring very capable people with intellectual disabilities along with some great horticulturists.

June also brings disease and insects to the garden. A few of the things we are seeing from submissions for diagnosis to our office are shown below. Azalea galls were sent in from South Windsor and are being reported around the state. The fungal disease, Exobasidium vaccinii, develops from an overwintering infected plant part of azalea leaf, twig or flower, and malforms the plant tissue into a curled and thickened gall.  As the gall ages it turns white releasing more spores to infect fresh tissue. Control should be to hand cut off and destroy galls before they turn white.

Azalea gall, b.zilinski 2

Azalea gall, B.Zilinski photo

Another sample image sent in were sweet birch leaves with bright red growths called Velvet Galls. These red patches are soft felt-like growths made by the plant in response to  to wall off the damage by a tiny eriophyid mite feeding on the leaves. The red patch is called an erinea. Unsightly while still being pretty, the damage is considered only cosmetic and causes no lasting harm to the tree. Thanks to Jean Laughman for her photos.

velvet gall on birch 2 Jean Laughman photo

velvet gall on birch,Jean Laughman photo, 6-8-18

Another great photo was sent in by Shawn Lappen for insect identification. The Dusky Birch Sawflies were striking a classic pose while eating the heck out of the leaves of a birch tree. Sawflies are stingless wasps whose larvae are plant feeders. The larvae are not caterpillars as this insect is not in the butterfly and moth order of Lepidoptera. Feeding damage usually does not cause much damage to a tree in good health. If control is needed, insecticidal soap will suffocate the larvae when sprayed on them.

Dusky Birch Sawfly, from Shawn Lappen

Golden tortoise beetles are attacking morning glory and sweet potato plants. They look like a little drop of gold but their beauty belies their destructive nature. Hand picking and dropping into a container of soapy water will kill them quickly.

Golden Tortoise beetle

Be on the lookout for Luna moths during the month of June. It is one of the largest silk moths and is attracted to lights at night. After mating, the female will lay her eggs on one of the host plants for the caterpillars including white birch (Betula papyrifera), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), hickories (Carya), walnuts (Juglans), and sumacs (Rhus). The photo below was sent in to us last June 4 by A. Saalfrank.

Luna moth A.Saalfrankphoto 6-4-2017

Leave the light on to attract Luna Moths

-Carol Quish

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