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Cedar waxwings in a Hawthorn tree, an important food source for birds in the winter

I love the outdoors and have spent a lot of time off the beaten track exploring since I was a young adult growing up in the Chenango River valley in New York. The way to get acquainted with nature is to get out in it. And I have done so all my life. This year was a good one for me personally as far as observing nature in all its glory. Even though the weather was colder in the spring and hotter and drier in the summer, and perhaps was the hottest year on record, there was a lot going on, both on a typical and uncommon level.

The first surprise was a pleasant one- a larger than average number of foxes spotted in all kinds of places. Innumerable times I saw foxes in the wee hours of morning returning with prey for their young. Whether in rural or residential areas, these animals were having a great year. The ones I saw had healthy skin and fur, and certainly had no trouble finding food. On the golf course where I work, there was a pair of foxes that had a den of kits just inside the woods by a tee. Every day like clockwork, they had a specific route they traveled going from the den to hunt, and they had a specific, different, route returning to the den with their quarry. The good news was they killed a lot of troublesome landscape troublers- mice, voles and even several woodchucks.  Later on, the parents would be accompanied by the kits as they learned to hunt.

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Cooper’s hawk patrolling near a bird feeder

Although a dry year, the two or three thunderstorms we had brought out a few creatures the next day. One of my favorites is the eft form of the red- spotted newt. These tiny, bright orange amphibians sometimes  venture out of the woods after a rainy night and sometimes can’t seem to find their way back. Several fairways tend to have these guys on them in the mornings, so I am on the alert for them as I mow. Box turtles are also known to put in a similar appearance on days after summer rains. This year I was able to help a granddaddy of a box turtle get across a very busy road safely. This particular turtle  was one of the most ornately marked ones I have ever seen.

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Eft form of the red- spotted newt happily returns to the woods

Another creature that had an exceptional year was the Spicebush Swallowtail butterfly. The previous year, they were few and far between, but in 2016 they had a banner year. The host plants of the caterpillars are spicebush and sassafras and careful examination inside leaves  folded lengthwise reveal the larvae of this butterfly. It seemed like whenever you came across  a host plant, at least one of these caterpillars was somewhere on it. On one small spicebush in a butterfly garden there were six caterpillars from eggs laid by six different females.

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Two spicebush swallowtail caterpillars found on the same sassafras sapling

Fall leaf color wasn’t great at first- perhaps because of the drought- and some red maples that turned early were actually yellow or brown in color. But there was a snap of cold in early October and a day later the leaves were at peak color, a sudden surprise after a drab start. Oaks were also beautiful this year- not dominated by the browns of last year. Red and white oaks had striking reds, and some red oaks produced yellow or tan. Acorns were not particularly abundant, but enough were around to keep deer, turkeys, squirrels and chipmunks in good supply. This was actually good for the squirrels and chipmunks because in late September and early October they were not able to find many maple seeds to eat because of the sudden freeze in April that caused many maple flowers to drop early.

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Willow leafing out in the snow on April 3, 2016

While insect populations, especially caterpillars, seemed low this year, bumblebees and other native bees abounded. Late season bloomers like mums, asters and goldenrods provided many insects with a good source of pollen and nectar. I found a small goldenrod in full bloom after Thanksgiving, which was very unusual. Bumblebees, some small native bees and honeybees were active up until Thanksgiving week, at least here on the UConn campus and in my backyard garden because alyssum, some hydrangeas and a few obedient plants were still in flower. And the caterpillars of the imported cabbage worm butterfly abounded late this season- even into December- especially on certain ornamental cabbages. A good find this year was a scarlet malachite beetle- on a blade of grass near my front step. This was only the second one I have ever seen, so it was a noteworthy event. The excitement never ends…

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scarlet malachite beetle

This year there was a pair of barred owls that had a nest inside a standing dead tree trunk on the side of a country road I travel on every day. In the pre-dawn when I passed by on my way to work, the parent owls would often be bringing the last protein nuggets of the night’s hunts back to their young. In the afternoon, both parents would be guarding the nest from perches nearby. In the pre-dusk twilight, the young owls would appear at the entrance of the nest hole and let it be known that they were hungry. And so the hunts would begin, to continue until the following dawn. I missed them all when they fledged and went off into the wild blue to learn to be on their own.

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Barred owl guarding her nest during the day

Wild blueberries were especially abundant this year, as were huckleberries. Noticeably fewer were dewberries, which are produced by plants that creep along the ground. Late in the season, migrating birds had few cedar berries to eat (unlike the bumper crop of last year), but at least black gum, poison ivy and Virginia creeper were loaded with fruit. Migrating warblers such as the yellow- rumped warblers are especially fond of these fruits. And if you have a bird feeder and some woods nearby, keep on the lookout for small raptors like the Cooper’s or the sharp-shinned hawks which prey on other birds. If birds around the feeder scatter suddenly, there may be a good reason, apart from a cat. During the winter, check out any hawthorn or crabapple trees that still have fruit. Robins and cedar waxwings are common winter visitors to these trees.

And as a final note, enjoy what is left of the year. And have a Merry Christmas! Or whatever you may celebrate at this time of year…

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Highland Park Springs Manchester, Ct.

 

 

 

 

spicebush swallowtail MAy 11 2009

The Spicebush Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio troilus Linnaeus )  is a large, dark  swallowtail  native to Eastern North America. The wings are black with a single line of ivory spots along the outside edge and the “ tails “ along the edge of the hind wings from which the swallowtails get their common name. Females have a blue wash and males a greenish blue wash on the upper side of the hind wings. Wingspans range from three to four inches, making swallowtails our largest butterfly. These butterflies are found especially near woodlands, where the males patrol looking for females, but they can turn up in any open areas such as fields or roadsides as they search for nectar sources and larval host plants. Flight in New England is from April- October. Look for them when Japanese honeysuckles begin to bloom in the spring.

The Spicebush Swallowtail has to be one of the most spectacular caterpillars of any of the North American Lepidoptera. Tucked in a leaf shelter during the day, these caterpillars often go undiscovered unless you know how to find them. First of all, check out the main larval host plants- principally spicebush, sassafras or sweet bay- and then look for leaves that are folded in half length- wise. Gently open the leaf and see if there might be a caterpillar inside. The caterpillar has eye spots on the thorax and usually the head faces the outward tip of the leaf, where it will resemble a little snake. It gets more spectacular in appearance as it progresses through its instars. The eye spots are a good defense against  many a bird that would otherwise have  them for dinner.

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Swallowtail caterpillars also have another defense mechanism- a gland called an osmeterium  that can be flashed from the thorax when the caterpillars is alarmed. It emits a disagreeable odor that is thought to deter predators. Sometimes just jostling the branch where the leaf shelter is located is enough to cause the caterpillar to use this line of defense. You will be alerted to its presence by the foul aroma, and need only look for the source nearby.

When caterpillars are ready to pupate they turn an orange or yellow color t as feeding stops. The host plant may not be the same plant where the caterpillar will pupate, and they will often travel some distance to find a suitable place for pupating. Like all swallowtails, the chrysalis is formed by the caterpillar hanging in a   head up position. Feet are tied down with silk and the thorax is hung away from the supporting stalk or branch by means of a silk “girdle “. The swallowtail chrysalis will have a set of “ ears “ where the head is, bearing a resemblance to Batman.  Chrysalises are green if the butterfly will emerge in the current year, and are brown if they will overwinter until eclosing the next spring.

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To attract the butterflies to your property, plant good nectar sources that will provide food from spring to fall. Buddleia davidii  is a favorite long- season nectar source for many butterflies. Bush honeysuckle, Lantana, goldenrods, Joe- Pye weed, purple coneflower and milkweeds are some plants that are attractive to swallowtail butterflies. In spring, phlox is a good source of nectar, and geraniums, impatiens and marigolds are good annuals to use. The Spicebush Swallowtail is singular in that it is able to enter the flowers of certain lilies like day lilies and Tiger Lilies to obtain nectar that is deep in the flowers. They are able to reach the nectar and then back out again with no harm done.

Including larval host plants on your property may encourage females to lay eggs nearby, making it possible to enjoy this creature in all of its life stages.

Pamm Cooper                  All Photos Copyrighted 2014 by Pamm Cooper