Garden Related Activities


There are many historic garden sites in Connecticut which can be seen on the annual Connecticut Historic Gardens Day on Sunday, June 23rd, 2019 from 12:00 noon to 4:00 p.m. From the Florence Griswold Museum in Old Lyme to the Roseland Cottage in Woodstock there is one near you. Of the several that are located in Hartford County, one of particular note is the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center historic garden, home to the late author in the last 23 years of her life, located at Nook Farm on Forest Street in Hartford.

Harriet Beecher was born in 1811 in Litchfield, CT, the daughter of a prominent Congregational minister, the Reverend Lyman Beecher. Harriet married Calvin Ellis Stowe, an ardent anti-slavery proponent, in 1836 in Cincinnati, Ohio. While in Ohio, Harriet and her husband supported the Underground Railroad, actually housing several fugitive slaves temporarily in their home. Cincinnati is located on the northern side of the Ohio River, just opposite the then-slave state of Kentucky, making it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. These circumstances led to Harriet writing the novel for which she is the most remembered, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, published in 1852, although she wrote more than 10 other novels, a book of poetry, and many works of non-fiction.

Frontispiece engraving of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin (Boston John P. Jewett, 1853).Frontispiece engraving of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Boston John P. Jewett, 1853).

Do you remember that Uncle Tom was a man who kept a good garden with fruits, vegetables, begonias, roses, marigolds, petunias, and four-o’clocks? Here is an excerpt from the book: In front it had a neat garden-patch, where, every summer, strawberries, raspberries, and a variety of fruits and vegetables, flourished under careful tending. The whole front of it was covered by a large scarlet bignonia and a native multiflora rose, which, entwisting and interlacing, left scarce a vestige of the rough logs to be seen. Here, also, in summer, various brilliant annuals, such as marigolds, petunias, four-o’clocks, found an indulgent corner in which to unfold their splendors, and were the delight and pride of Aunt Chloe’s heart.

cabin Image by Charles Howland Hammatt Billings (1818-1874) for the expanded 1853 edition of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

In 1873, Harriet and her husband Calvin purchased and moved into a 5000 square foot painted brick Victorian Gothic ‘cottage’ at Nook Farm. Her fellow author, Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, moved in next door a year later. Harriet would spend the last 23 years of her life at Nook Farm. Also part of the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center is the home owned by Harriet’s great-niece, Katharine Seymour Day.

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Harriet was an enthusiastic flower gardener and her passion was shared by her great-niece. The gardens around the homes reflect their fondness for and knowledge of the plantings of the Victorian era. Nook Farm contains eight distinct gardens including the woodland garden, the blue cottage garden, the wildflower meadow, a high Victorian texture garden, antique rose garden with award winning roses, formal color-coordinated or monochromatic gardens, and more.

The site includes Connecticut’s largest Merrill magnolia tree, a specimen that towers over and dominates the landscape. It blooms in early spring and had unfortunately gone by when we were there in early June so that we missed its large, fragrant, white blooms. However, the Collections Manager at the Center was kind enough to send this great image of the tree in full bloom as well as one of the Stowe dogwood which had also already bloomed.

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Merrill Magnolia image courtesy of the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center, Hartford, CT

The 100-year or older Harriet Beecher Stowe Dogwood™, Cornus Florida rubra, is believed to be from Stowe’s time, and saplings grown from cuttings are planted from Canada to Japan and even at Harriet’s home in Cincinnati.

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The Harriet Beecher Stowe Dogwood image courtesy of the Harriet Beecher Stowe Center, Hartford, CT

In the Victorian era the dogwood symbolized endurance and sprigs were presented to unmarried women by male suitors to show interest. Should the woman return it to the suitor it meant that she was indifferent to him, if she kept it was a sign of mutual interest, the 19th century equivalent of “swiping right”.

It is fitting that these saplings are finding homes outside of Connecticut as Harriet was a proponent of trading plants with family and friends, bringing cuttings and seeds with her when she moved to a new home, and pressing blossoms into sketchbooks, a common practice during the Victoria era.

Pansies

Harriet’s gardens gave her ample opportunity to paint out of doors, a practice known as en plein air, with other local artists. Thematic and single-color gardens provided inspiration to artists then and they still do. Shade areas are filled in with hosta, Solomon’s seal, and meadow anemone, all in cool greens and whites.

Just a bit further down the walk are white-themed peonies, iris, rose, and bridal-wreath spirea.

Two plants are listed in the self-guided tour but were not in evidence as we strolled the grounds: the Elephant ears and the castor bean plants. Elephant ears have dramatic foliage that can measure up to 2 feet across can grow in sun if they get some afternoon cover or shade.

The castor bean, Ricinus communis, is a highly toxic annual herb and as such, may seem like an odd choice for a garden that receives so many visitors. Reaching a height of 8 feet, it can tower over every other annual in the garden with its reddish-purple stems, large, palmate, lobed leaves, and red, prickly fruit capsules. It is within these unusual fruits that the toxic part of the castor bean lies. The seeds contain ricin, a phytotoxalbumin which can cause a fatal reaction. In fact, the broken seeds can cause a severe allergic reaction just by coming into contact with the skin. After all of that you wouldn’t think that anyone would want a castor bean plant around but it is called an ornamental annual. And yet, once it has been heated during extraction, the toxicity is deactivated and the castor oil is used in a variety of coatings, lubricants, and medicines. The image below is by Dawn Pettinelli but is not from the Harriet Beecher Stowe gardens.Castor Bean SB07

Roses are in evidence throughout but it is the lined drive with its hedges of lovely fragrant roses that is just stunning.

Here is a video tour of the rose hedges:

The side garden of the Katharine Seymour Day house has a romantic Victorian garden that boasts peonies, roses, and moth mullein with its vintage dusty peach shades.

Behind the Day house are massive examples of mountain laurel, rhododendrons and a pawpaw tree. A National Champion tree, the common pawpaw, Asimina triloba, is a native deciduous tree that produces an edible fruit with a banana-like taste leading to it also being known as the West Virginia banana or the Custard apple.

As we walked around we could also see the home of Mark Twain and I couldn’t resist a peak at the conservatory, my favorite room there.

Should you choose to visit any of the gardens on the historic tour please visit their website: Connecticut Historic Gardens.

Susan Pelton. UConn Home & Garden Education Center

 

This Thursday through Sunday (February 21st-24th) is the 38th Annual Connecticut Flower & Garden Show. The UConn Home & Garden Education Center along with the Master Gardener Program and the Soil Nutrient Analysis Lab will be staffing an exhibit and giving seminars. The UConn Horticulture Club will also set up a landscape display. For those of you unfamiliar with the Show, it takes place at the Connecticut Convention Center in Hartford. There are going to be hundreds of exhibits and dozens of seminars and talks devoted to different topics pertaining to flowers, plants, and gardens.

Our exhibit is located at booths 419 and 421, across from the Federated Garden Club. We will be providing free soil pH testing along with limestone recommendations, so be sure to bring a small bag of your soil! Soil Test Kits will be on sale for $12.00 (cash or check only). There are also tons of handouts on composting, gardening, lawn management, and pest & weed control. We will be available to answer any questions you may have, provide useful tips and pointers, or just chat about any of the services we offer.

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Final-Floorplan-2019-Flower-Show

flower show booth

(Setting up our booth. Image by Joe Croze.)

Aoril in Paril

(The theme for The Federated Garden Clubs of CT, Inc is April in Paris. Image by Joe Croze.)

Dawn Pettinelli, an Assistant Extension Educator as well as the manager of both the UConn Soil Nutrient Analysis Lab and Home & Garden Education Center, will be presenting two seminars on Thursday. The first is at 11:00 am and is about When Good Worms Go Bad, and the second is at 2:00 pm on Garden Ornaments.

Dawn Pettinelli

(Dawn Pettinelli. Image by https://ctflowershow.com/seminars-demos/)

Pamm Cooper’s seminar, Gardening to Support Native Pollinators and Butterflies, is on Friday at 12:30 pm. Pamm was an assistant superintendent at a golf course for over 20 years, teaches entomology and turf portions in the Master Gardener Program, and worked with Dr. David Wagner studying caterpillars in a bio-survey for the Tankerhoosen DEEP property and Belding Wildlife Management Area. She now works in the Home & Garden Education Center office using her insight to help guide others and answer questions on better lawn and garden management practices.

Pamm Cooper

(Pamm Cooper. Image by https://ctflowershow.com/seminars-demos/)

Carol Quish will be speaking about Healthy Gardens on Saturday at 2:00 pm. Carol earned a degree in Ornamental Horticulture and Turfgrass Management from UConn, is an Advanced Master Gardener and Master Composter, and is a CT Nursery and Landscape Association Professional. Carol works as a horticulturist at the Home & Garden Center where she identifies pests, insects, and plant disease.

Carol Quish

(Carol Quish. Image by https://ctflowershow.com/seminars-demos/)

Flower show exhibits

(Various exhibits throughout previous years. Images by Dawn Pettinelli.)

More information about the Connecticut Flower and Garden Show (ticket pricing, parking, additional vendors, booths, speakers, etc…) can be found online on their website or Facebook page:

https://ctflowershow.com/

https://www.facebook.com/CTFlowerGardenShow/

We look forward to seeing you there!

-Joe Croze

orchid yellow flower

Cold weather keeps gardening chores indoors. A recently acquired, but neglected moth or Phalaenopsis orchid came my way and needed some attention. I had another one on the window sill in need or repotting and set to the task. Moth orchids can outgrow their pots in about a year’s time as their wandering roots reach outside and above the edge of the containers. In their natural environment, they grow high in the trees, above the soil, taking all of their nutrients from the humid, tropical air, rain and debris which may land around the plant. This manner of growing is called epiphytic.  Leaves grow from a center grouping, sending roots out from just below leaf axis.

Mature plants usually flower late winter into spring. Flower show can last for several months. Repotting is best right after flowering. New orchids are often sold with roots packed in sphagnum moss to keep them moist during the shipping and retail portion of their life. Once home, moss and any plastic packing and pots should be carefully removed. Orchid roots like air and will rot if keep soggy and wet.

After removing moss.

Cut back any dead or rotted roots.

 

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After cutting back dead roots in moss.

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Neglected roots cut back.

Phalaenopsis orchids prefer a porous pot such as terracotta which provides plenty of air. Some decorative orchid pots have holes designed in the sides for the roots to access more air. Water these plants and pots over the sink as water will readily run out.

Use specially formulated orchid bark mix for potting. The mix should contain bark, perlite and horticultural charcoal. Old bark deteriorates over about a two year period, and should be refreshed annually by repotting to keep the plants strong.

Fill the pots half full of bark mix, then set the trimmed root ball onto the bark, spreading out the roots carefully. Insert a plant stake or chopstick through the bark mix, next to the plant to help anchor the orchid.

pot half filled - Copy

Half filled with bark mix.

Gently add more bark mix over the roots to within one half inch of the top edge of the pot. Fill a large cooking pot or bowl with tepid water. Immerse the entire pot containing the bark and plant into the water to soak the bark for about 20 minutes. Then lift the terracotta pot containing the plant out of the water and let is drain in the sink. If settling occurs, add more bark. Orchids should never completely dry out. Keep the bark moist by soaking weekly, or water just the bark from above. Holes in pots are a must for good drainage.

Moth orchid should be placed in bright light, preferably east window. A south or west window will need a sheer curtain or the plant moved back out of the directly rays of sun to avoid leaf scorch.  In their wild home, they would be shaded by the tree canopy.

Orchids thrive in high humidity and temperatures around 75 degrees F with a slight drop at night. In the fall, reduced daylight and night temperatures of 55 degrees F will initiate flower bud formation. To provide more humidity, mist with clear water in the morning or set potted plant on a tray of pebbles and shallow water. The water will make a cone of evaporation surrounding the plant. Fertilize every two weeks with a balanced houseplant fertilizer during spring, summer and fall. Cut to half strength during the winter.

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-Carol Quish

 

 

With the encroaching winter storm and dropping temperatures, I thought it would be appropriate to talk about a very interesting and unique soil order, the Gelisol. Soils are dynamic systems that are essential to life as we know it, and are nonrenewable resource that vary in physical and chemical composition throughout the world. Parent material (underlying bedrock, glacial deposits, wind-blown sediment, etc…), climate, topography, biological activity/factors, and time are the 5 soil forming factors. Different places on the planet will produce a wide variety of variations of these 5 factors. To help understand and classify soils, 12 different orders were formed. The 12 different Soil Taxonomy Orders are: Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, and Vertisols. Each order has unique properties that are a result of 5 soil-forming factors.

gelisols global map

Figure 1: Global Distribution of Gelisols (NRCS https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/class/maps/?cid=stelprdb1237761)

Gelisols are, in my opinion, the most interesting and important soil orders. The Soil Science Society of American defines Gelisols as soils that are “permanently” frozen containing permafrost within 100 centimeters of the soil surface, and/or gelic materials within 100 centimeters and permafrost within 200 centimeters of the soil surface. Permafrost is soil and rock that remains below 0 degrees Celsius for a minimum of 2 years; and “gelic materials” are soil components that show evidence of cryoturbation, or frost churning, a mechanism unique to gelisols. Cryoturbation is the irregular breaking and mixing of soil horizons (think different segmented layers of soil) via the movement of water caused by seasonal melts and thaws. To clarify, just because your front yard is frozen for a few months in the winter is not enough to classify the soil within as a gelisol.

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Figure 2: A Gelisol (SSSA https://www.soils.org/discover-soils/soil-basics/soil-types/gelisols)

According to the United States Geological Survey, around 9% of global ice-free land area contain gelisols. They are found in tundra and cold-weather environments, which has made them a hot topic of conversation as the effects of climate change are becoming more obvious. Trapped within the permafrost, contained within gelisols are large amounts of preserved carbon. Over thousands of years, during the last ice age, carbon was deposited in permafrost as ice sheets advanced and retreated. Bedrock was ground into fine silts and dust via glacial movement. This glacial flour was blown across the world and deposited, covering everything in sight, including plants and animals. Quick burial in cold environments doesn’t allow for decomposition of organic material. So as a result, modern day gelisols are a giant carbon reservoir. As climate change continues, the environments containing gelisols are more at risk of melting. Melting gelisols means that the organic material within them are now subject to rapid degradation. The decomposition of organic matter releases carbon in various forms, the most dangerous being methane. Methane is a very powerful greenhouse gas that acts to trap light in heat within our atmosphere. Hopefully you can see the problem: increasing climate change has the potential to thaw gelisols, releasing large reservoirs of methane into the atmosphere, effectively increasing the rate of climate change exponentially. Quite literally adding fuel to the fire.

baby the bison

Figure 3: Babe, the bison was found in thawing permafrost is estimated to be around 36,000 years old. (Photo by: Bill Schmoker (PolarTREC 2010), Courtesy of ARCUS)

-Joe Croze, UConn Soil Lab

 

new year new start

The start of the New Year is a good time to start new in the gardening year too. There is always something new to plant or try, or a method of gardening to embrace. The down-time of winter offers the opportunity to seek out something new.

Start a new plant. Visit the warmth of indoor greenhouses to lift our moods and possibly find a new houseplant. Succulents are readily available and easy to grow if you have a sunny window. Use a well-draining potting mix formulated especially for cactus and succulents to get them off with a good beginning. Water only when the top inch or so of soil is dry.

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Another popular houseplant with many different varieties and forms is Peperomia. They come with solid green or variegated leaves, some with white and others with reddish hues. Textures of the leaves vary by species with some smooth and others crinkled.  All plants in the Pipericeae family are non-toxic making them safe for homes with pets and small children. Known for its low-maintenance requirements, they will happily grow in bright, non-direct light and moist but well-drained potting medium. They have a slower rate of growth, keeping them in bounds of the container for a long time before the need to repot in a larger size container.

Start a garden journal. By tracking the bloom times and placement of perennials and trees, you might see a new combination to try. Having the plant’s location marked on paper helps one to find it in the garden in late fall or early spring, when it is the ideal time to move. Monitor and record the sunlight amounts throughout the year to see how shade increases over time as neighboring trees grow taller. A sunny yard can change to part or full shade over a decade or two. Vegetable garden journals and keep track of that exceptional tomato grown last year, or maybe the one that didn’t produce as advertised. This information will help plan the next vegetable garden with better or continued success.

garden journal

Start a new class to add you knowledge base of horticulture. UConn Master Gardeners offer advanced, topic specific classes around the state. These Garden Master classes are offered to the general public at a slightly higher price than UConn certified master gardeners, and well worth it. Topics range from woody plant identification to botanical drawing. Visit the garden master catalog to view classes.

mgs

The Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection offer a wide range of outdoor classes and activities. Safety in outdoor sports is heavily reinforced if you interest is in boating, fishing, trapping or hunting. Their goal is education for you to keep yourself safe while starting a new outside activity. Classes on the environment and educational hikes are offered around the state at seven different educational facilities. 

trailhike

Start a new book. New publications in the non-fiction realm of plants include three winners from the America Horticultural Society. One is about bees and native plants needed to feed them, another on the subject of a cut flower farm, and the third is about trees of North America. There is many other great garden and plant books to start you own self-guided learning on subjects of interest to you. I was gifted the two below written by Carol J. Michel which look entertaining and educational.

books

Start anew by joining a group of like-minded plant people. Garden clubs offer talks and friendship with other members, and some have civic minded projects involving gardening, usually by town. The CT Horticultural Society offers monthly lectures to state wide members and others, for a fee, and occasional hands on workshops. They list their scheduled speakers on their website. Other groups are focused on one subject, such as the CT Valley Mycological Society where you can learn all about mushrooms and fungi. There is also the Hardy Plant Society, and the CT Rose Society. If your tastes are more specific, check out the Iris Society or the CT Dahlia Society.

-Carol Quish

Although small in size, Connecticut is rich in geological diversity. Connecticut formed after a series of orogenies, or island arc collisions, followed by a few million years of rifting, and a couple thousand years of glacial activity for good measure. These events formed the numerous landscapes we currently see in our state, from marble caves in Litchfield County, The Hartford Rift Basin throughout the middle of the state, and the countless North-South oriented drumlins scattered throughout the state. I remember riding in the back seat of my Mom’s minivan as a kid and being mesmerized by the giant outcrops along the side of the highways. My fascination with rocks and the earth led me to pursue a degree in geology. One of my favorite activities is hiking; and while I’m out on a trail or path, I always keep my eye out for any cool and unique minerals, rocks, and rock formations. This hobby has turned into a pretty serious gem and rock collection over the years.

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The Connecticut State mineral is the Almandine Garnet. Garnets can be found in any type of rock; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. For those of you who can’t recall:

Igneous: Cooling magma/lava flows and intrusions.

Sedimentary: Physical and chemical weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks followed by deposition and diagenesis.

Metamorphic: Transformation of igneous and sedimentary rocks via extreme heat and pressure.

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While garnets can be found almost anywhere, they are often associated with Schists in Connecticut. Schists are metamorphic rocks that used to be shales, sedimentary rocks. Shales consist of clay-sized particles that are deposited mostly in still-water environments. The sediments undergo diagenesis, creating a shale, and then undergo metamorphism due to additional heat and pressure, most likely through burial, to create a schist. This causes the elements within the rock unit to reorganize, if there is enough Aluminum present in the shale then garnets can form.

The presences of garnets throughout Connecticut is no secret, my grandparents would tell me when they were children they would find them along the side of the roads while walking to school. Interest in gemstones and geology in Connecticut led to the creation of the Connecticut Garnet Trail (CGT). The CGT spans from Milford to Stratford, and consists of 10 sites where garnets can be found. These sites are state forests and parks, conservancy land, and privately owned land. I personally have had a lot of luck finding garnets at the Salman River State Forest in Colchester. More information about the CGTcan be found online at the CT DEEP website. Some useful links are:

https://www.depdata.ct.gov/maps/GarnetTrail/index.html#

http://www.ct.gov/deep/lib/deep/gis/garnettrail/ctgarnettrail_all.pdf

Even googling the CGT can yield a lot of great hints and locations for finding garnets in Connecticut. If you are a Gem Hound like me, and this is something that interests you, UConn offers a variety of bedrock and surficial geology maps of the state that can help you find garnets, among other rocks and minerals. Some more useful links are:

http://cteco.uconn.edu/maps/state/Bedrock_Geologic_Map_of_Connecticut.pdf

http://magic.lib.uconn.edu/connecticut_data.html#environmental

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Happy (Gem) Hunting!

-Joe C

geranium_lemon, missouri.edu

Lemon Scented Geranium, photo from Missouri.edu

As cold weather arrives, my garden focus switches to houseplants. I am particularly fond of growing scented geraniums inside the home. They are easy to grow and smell great, releasing aromatic oils into the air when their leaves are gently stroked, refreshing the stale scents of enclosed houses. Houseplants in general are a great way to increase the moisture level of dry, winter-heated air as water is added to their soil, and some moisture will evaporate into the air surrounding the plants.

Scented geraniums are in the genus Pelargonium, the same as the annual geranium with the large red, white or pink ball of a flower head. Even though both of these types of Pelargonium are have the common name of geranium, neither are related to the true perennial geranium (Geranium maculatum), commonly called cranesbill. Pelargonium species are not hardy in areas with cold winters. Scented geraniums can be planted outside and treated as an annual in addition to being a houseplant. They are native to South Africa, and were introduced to Europe in the 17th century by plant collectors as was popular at that time. Scented plants were especially prized in that era of limited sanitation and personal hygiene. Leaves and flowers were used in tussy-mussies to be carried by ladies whom wanted to smell better. The plant flower a smaller pale colored flower, usually pink or lilac depending on the specific variety.

scente geranium, arnold arboretum, historical print

Pelargonium
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From
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mosquito_citronella_geranium_pelargonium_Barbara H. Smith, ©2018 HGIC, Clemson Extension.jpg

photo by Barbara H. Smith, ©2018 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Today scented geraniums are prized house plants for a sunny window or greenhouse. Leaves are edible, can be tossed in a salad or used as a garnish without fear of toxicity. Leaves are used as tea, and can be added to baked goods. Lining the bottom of a greased cake with artistically arranged leaves, then gently pouring in the batter creates a pretty and tasty dessert. Add one cup of fresh crushed leaves to simmering apple juice to make into flavored apple jelly following apple jelly recipe on pectin container. Dried leaves can be added to pot pourri and added to muslin sachet bags to place in a drawer. Sachets can also be used in hot baths or a relaxing spa experience.

The flavors or scents of scented geraniums are broken into several groups. The Rose Scented Group contain a number of different varieties with strong, clear rose scents to ones with a softer rose fragrance. Atomic Snowflake has a lemon-rose scent. Another scent group is the Citrus Scented geraniums. Lemon Crispum has a strong lemony fragrance, while Lime smells like a key lime pie. Prince of Orange sports crinkly leaves to emit its orange scent. The Fruit and Spice Group contain plants that smell like ginger, nutmeg apple and even strawberry. These are especially good in baked goods. The Mint Group, true to its name, has different plants with varying grades of minty scents. Peppermint, a peppermint lemon and a pungent peppermint with rose notes are all different. The last group is the Pungent Group with musky, oak, and camphor fragrances. It is best to feel the leaves and smell the plants before deciding to take one home to be sure it is agreeable to your nose and palate.

scented geranium, white flower farm photo

Scented geranium varieties, photo WhiteFlowerFarm.com

Growing requirements for all scented geraniums are fairly easy. They need a sunny south or west window or fluorescent lights, and well drained, light potting mix. Water them when the soil is dry to the touch. If the soil is keep soggy, the roots will rot. Drain any water from the saucer below the pot to avoid over saturation. Temperatures for optimum growth are in the range of 55 to 70 degrees F. Fertilize with a basic houseplant fertilizer every three month. Too much fertilizer leads to weaker growth and less scent production. Prune back the plant if it begins to grow too large, saving the trimmings of course!

Lemon Scented geranium at FS, DPettinelli

Lemon Scented Geranium on display at the flower show. photo by D. Pettinelli.

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