Early autumn is such a great time in New England. We get to visit apple orchards and pumpkin fields, walk through corn mazes and go on hay rides. We snack on popcorn and apple cider, pick apples and pumpkins to cook into pies and butters and just marvel in the wonderful colors of the changing leaves. One of my favorite things about this time of year is the fall raspberry crop. Years ago we discovered that a local orchard had raspberries in the fall and we were so excited. It is something that we continue to look forward to every fall. A few years ago I picked up some raspberry canes from the North Central Conservation District Plant and Seedling sale (more about that at the end of this post) and they have established themselves nicely.

Caroline raspberries in my home garden. Image by Susan Pelton.

In order to have a fall crop of raspberries you will need to have an everbearing variety, Rubus idaeus. Unlike summer-bearing varieties which may have red, black or purple berries, the everbearing raspberries are usually red. The Fall Gold variety with its yellow fruit is actually an albino red raspberry! The cultivar that I have is ‘Caroline’. Since raspberries are self-fruiting it is not necessary to have several cultivars for pollination although each variety brings its own advantages.

With the everbearing varieties you have two options. They can be allowed to bear fruit in the summer and the fall or only in the fall. The crowns and roots of the raspberry are perennial but the individual canes live for two years. The summer-bearing raspberries will not produce on new growth (the primocanes) until the second year (the floricanes). The primocanes of everbearing raspberries will produce fruit in the fall of their first year. They will then bear fruit on those same canes the following summer. I planted canes in the spring three years ago and this was the best production year so far. If only a fall crop is desired all canes should be cut to the base before the new growth appears in the spring. For two crops a year simply thin out primocanes by cutting them back to the last visible node that had fruit or trimming any tips that are browned.

Primocanes and floricanes at Easy Pickin’s Orchard, Enfield, CT. Image by Susan Pelton.

Growing raspberries is relatively easy if you keep a few things in mind. Raspberries prefer to be planted in a narrow row or hedge and trellised. They will be in the same location for up to 15 years so choose a site that is in sun for at least 6-8 hours a day and will not block other plants. I have my canes in full sun but with their backs to a tall fence. This helps to block the wind so that they don’t get desiccated but they still get good air circulation.

A bee pollinating raspberries. Image by Susan Pelton.

If you don’t have raspberry canes as part of your habitat you may want to consider establishing a bed. The Connecticut Conservation Districts hold their Plant and Seedling sales every spring and are a great way to purchase native edible plants. They can be found online at http://conservect.org/. The Connecticut Department of Agriculture has an extensive list of orchards and pick-your-own farms on their website at http://www.ct.gov/doag/cwp/view.asp?a=3260&q=399070.

Image by Susan Pelton.

Susan Pelton

Silverfish AKA Firebrat

Silverfish AKA Firebrat

Occasionally I find an insect inside my home and don’t worry too much about it, just figure it found its way inside in error, and politely relocate it to the out of doors. But when I found several silverfish in my seldom used extra bathroom, I knew they were an indicator something was amiss.

Silverfish live in damp or wet areas and love rotting wood. They do not like to live on the dry tile of this room. Upon further inspection of the basement just below that bathroom, we found dripping water. Oh no, the joys of home maintenance. The wood below the drain of the shower was wet and soft. Perfect conditions to house silverfish. They are also known as Firebrats in some areas of the country, are actually a different species, but are very much alike. The Silverfish’s Latin name is Lepisma saccharina.

Silverfish feed on high starch sources such as wallpaper and book-bindings and the used in them. They will eat cereal grains, paper and wood. They want a moist environment, especially moist ply wood.

Silverfish Life Cycle, http://www.amnh.org

Silverfish Life Cycle, http://www.amnh.org

Silverfish have gradual metamorphosis, starting with an egg which hatches into a nymph. Several molts take place until they reach maturity. Silverfish can live up to six years! Eggs are laid near a food source in cracks and crevices. As long as moisture is abundant, these insects will live.

Which brings me to control measures. First we had to fix the leak that caused all of the wetness. Next we have to dry out the area with fans and dehumidifying. It is a good idea to disinfect any surfaces to retard a secondary mold problem. Once area is dry, cleaning by vacuuming is recommended. Reduce any clutter around the home, especially papers and books to reduce the food sources. Seal any cracks in foundations or walls, and around pipes to keep silverfish from entering the home in the first place. Insecticides containing boric acid or pyrethroids labeled for indoor use can be used in areas where silverfish are found.

-Carol Quish

 

 

Goldenrod (Solidago sp.) is really at its peak right now, brightening the fading natural landscape of late summer with splashes of yellow in fields, along roadways and on the edges of wooded areas. There are many species of goldenrod and they all have yellow flowers that are produced in late summer to early fall. One common roadside species is Canadian goldenrod (S. canadensis), shown in the photo (if I’ve ID’d it correctly). Goldenrods are in the Asteraceae family and are herbaceous perennials.

J. Allen photo.

J. Allen photo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most goldenrods are native to North America and many people consider them weeds but certain species (and cultivars) have been gaining popularity in gardening. Some of the new cultivars are less aggressive spreaders than their wild counterparts and the flowers are very attractive to many beneficial insects including pollinators and parasites and predators of pests. In addition to these nice qualities, goldenrods are considered edible and have been used extensively for medicinal purposes.   Commonly assumed to cause allergic reactions when in flower, the pollen of goldenrods is too heavy and sticky to be airborne in large quantities that would be a problem. This time of year, ragweed is the most common culprit.

Medical ailments historically treated using this plant include minor skin wounds, tuberculosis, diabetes, gout, hemorrhoids, internal bleeding, asthma, arthritis, inflammation, high blood pressure and kidney stones. No significant scientific research has been done to date to support these uses but a few laboratory studies do suggest a benefit may occur for inflammation, muscle spasms, fighting infections and lowering blood pressure.   It also seems to have diuretic properties. It is used in herbal teas. Consult with your doctor before using goldenrod or other supplements to treat any medical condition. A University of Maryland publication on this subject recommends caution for people that have certain existing health conditions.

Bumblebee foraging on goldenrod flowers. J. Allen photo.

Bumblebee foraging on goldenrod flowers. J. Allen photo.

An interesting historical use of goldenrod is for rubber. Its leaves typically contain 7% rubber. Apparently Thomas Edison worked on fertilization and cultivation methods to maximize the rubber content and his work produced a 12 foot tall plant with up to 12% rubber content. Henry Ford, a friend of Edison’s, used goldenrod rubber for tires on the Model T he gave to him. Ford also collaborated with George Washington Carver at the Tuskegee Institute, funding work to develop synthetic rubber and/or commercialize goldenrod rubber when World War II caused rubber shortages. Unfortunately, the rubber from goldenrod was not of high enough quality for commercial use.

Traditional garden lore on companion planting lists goldenrod as a plant that seems to attract striped cucumber beetles away from the vegetable garden. No data has proven this one way or the other. Research indicates that goldenrod may have some allelopathic (harmful/inhibitory) effect on some trees, including black locust and sugar maple.   Goldenrod has the distinctive status of state flower in both Kentucky and Nebraska and is the state wildflower of South Carolina and the state herb of Delaware.

Goldenrods have been introduced as garden flowers in other parts of the world and in parts of Europe and China have escaped cultivation and become problematic invasives. There are recipes available for making goldenrod oil and vinegar. Whether you use the plant in your kitchen or just enjoy the pretty blossoms, now you know a little more about this native plant and its role in the environment.

 

 

 

J. Allen

 

 

furcula- gray or hourglass Mt Rd power lines on aspenAugust 9, 2014 II

Furcula with modified anal prolegs used to wave away potential predators

Many insects never make it to adulthood to complete their life cycles because in the grand scheme of things, they are low on the food chain. Between birds and amphibians, mammals and other insects, there is no lack of creatures that rely upon insects to muscle up themselves or to ensure their young survive long enough to obtain food for themselves.

But insects are not necessarily limpid little defenseless victims of a more sophisticated life form. They have strategies to overcome the odds of becoming dinner for something else. Some use camouflage, others are cryptic in manner and color, some have mastered the technique of veiling themselves with material and others simply hide. When you become familiar with specific species and their means of surviving, then it becomes easier to find them or to at least recognize them when you see them.

One of the ways insects can hide in plain sight is by coloration and feeding techniques. Spring caterpillars that feed on new leaves are often green in color. Late season caterpillars are differently colored and often have colorations or body forms that imitate the dead leaf spots and edges that occur at that time of year. Some feed along leaf edges and appear to be part of the leaf itself. Careful scrutiny will reveal the ruse. Two of the prominent caterpillars, the Wavy- lined Heterocampa and the Lace-capped caterpillar are just two examples of this behavior.

??????????

Wavy- lined Heterocampa feeding cryptically along the lower edge of a sweet birch leaf

Many assassin bugs that rely upon other insects as their food source will often lie in wait in places other insects are sure to visit. This includes flowers. Ambush bugs perch on flower heads, especially yellow and white composites, and wait for pollinators or nectar collecting insects to come to them. Ambush bugs are hard to spot on these flowers as they are the same color as the petals. They are motionless and are hard for even people to spot unless you look carefully for them. Often you will see butterflies that hang limply from flower heads. A close examination will reveal an ambush bug ( or a crab spider ! ) clasping the body and feeding off the insect’s fluids. Also, assassin bugs and predatory stink bugs often hide inside the folded seed heads of Queen Anne’s Lace and wait for other insects that use the structure as a hiding place to come inside. Opportunity may knock, but being in the right place at the right time is a better means of assuring survival.

Walking sticks are a good example of cryptic coloration and mimicry. Early nymphs are found on viburnum and filbert in New England. On these plants, both the insect’s shape and color allow it to blend so completely with that of the plant foliage that unless they move or cast a shadow, they are very hard to find. Later in the season, the older nymphs and adults change their food plants to oaks and cherries where they are able to blend in as their color changes to match the foliage of these trees. Camouflage loopers are small caterpillars that are found on composites. They take petals from the plant’s flowers and “ glue “ them on their body. They blend in so well that the only evidence of their presence will be that the flowers seems to be deformed.

walking stick blending in on filbert July 1, 2014

Early nymph of a walking stick on native filbert. Note how legs blend in with the leaf veins.

Caterpillars, especially the slug moth caterpillars, can have defense mechanisms that utilize urticating hairs or venomous barbs to ward off potential predators. Handling some tussock moth caterpillars. the familiar woolly bears, Io moth cats and others may prove a painful experience for some people. One especially to be avoided is the saddleback caterpillar- small,l but able to inflict severe pain or burning sensation that lasts for several hours or even a few days. The body is covered with hollow spines that release an irritant when brushed or touched. Handled gently, many of these caterpillars will not harm the handler, but use caution around any caterpillar having barbs, hairs or spines. While many caterpillars that have spines and hairs have no toxins, unless you know for certain they are harmless, avoid contact with the skin to be safe.

 

Another means by which insects can protect themselves is by mimicry. Many flies have coloration and markings that are very similar to wasps and bees. These flies can also feed on the pollen of many of the plants that bees and wasps also visit. Birds will tend to avoid any insect that may have  the potential to sting, so these bee mimics need not worry as they go about their everyday work acquiring pollen. The Virginia Flowerfly is one pollen- gathering bee mimic that is very common in Connecticut.

stink bugs hiding jpg

Stink bug nymphs hiding in grape leaf shelter

 

Many types of insects use leaf shelters as a means of hiding from predators by day. Besides caterpillars such as the Spicebush Swallowtail, stink bugs routinely use abandoned leaf shelters for themselves. I have especially found them by day huddling in small groups in leaf shelters on grape, which, along with raspberry, is one of the most common plants they feed on in the wild. Some spiders will use the same type of shelters, so be prepared for that surprise when you open any likely hiding places. Queen Anne’s lace is an especially good place to look for caterpillars, insects, assassin or other predatory bugs and spiders late in the year. Or look on goldenrod flowers, both for predators and caterpillars that feed on the flowers.

 

Slapping old molted skins on or using their own frass piled on their body is another way an insect either protect itself or camouflage itself to get clser to potential victims. Tortoise beetle larva use both methods to keep their presence unknown . All that can be seen is a small blob that looks like debris or frass. If disturbed, they may tip the mess up in the air over the body, somewhat like opening the trunk of a car. Then it is lowered again to conceal the soft body once again. Lacewing larva use their molted skins and other detritus to cover their body in a similar way. They can be found especially on white oak leaves this year. Look for a small, light tan, fuzzy pile moving across a leaf. This is probably a lacewing larva.

lacewing larva with molted skins covering it Pamm Cooper photo

lacewing larva with molted skins covering it

camoulflaged looper plus tiny looper Belding

Camouflage looper on daisy

 

Well, that is a brief look at some ways insects survive or attempt to survive in the world. There are many other ways and means insects employ subterfuge and the rest that could probably fill a book, but this is simply a leaf through…

 

Pamm Cooper

A couple of weeks ago, the Connecticut Community Gardening Association partnering with the community garden at Manchester Community College held a Summer Celebration of the gardens, the dedicated gardeners, their bounty, composting efforts and the desire to learn more about growing one’s own food. I just learned from an on-line article that only 5 % of Americans garden! That is really depressing to me (not only as a soils and horticulture educator) but because gardening affords me such a pleasant escape from my every day, real-world trials and tribulations. I look at it as free therapy – often with culinary benefits!

Manchester Community College Community Garden

Manchester Community College Community Garden

A moderate sized group of local, interested folks showed up for a tour of the gardens and an informal but insightful presentation by CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection’s (CT DEEP) Sherill Baldwin. Some of the statistics that Ms. Baldwin presented us with were truly amazing. Food waste is apparently the largest component of municipal solid waste that goes to landfills and incinerators. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that food wastes made up 21.3 % of the total national municipal solid wastes generated in 2011. Amazingly that amounts to 36.31 million tons of wasted food each year! This represents major inefficiencies in our food system!

Sheril Baldwin from CT DEEP

Sheril Baldwin from CT DEEP

Not only are our valuable natural resources (soil, water, nutrients, etc.) wasted when edible food products are tossed into the trash but there is a monetary loss (estimated $1,365 – $2,275) when food is discarded and not eaten and if food ends up in a landfill, methane gas is produced as the food decays underground and it is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Even if the food waste is burned for energy, it still could often be put to better use, according to Ms. Baldwin.

Bob Halstead from CCGA and Bridgeport preparing a meal from locally harvested community gardens.

Bob Halstead from CCGA and Bridgeport preparing a meal from locally harvested community gardens.

A recent UConn study found that 12.7% of Connecticut residents from 2008 to 2010 were living in a household which was deemed ‘food insecure’. The USDA’s definition of food insecurity is ‘access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life”.

So Connecticut gardeners, what can you do if you have extra produce to share? Actually there are a lot of options. Contact one of the following organizations:

http://site.foodshare.org/site/PageServer?pagename=index

http://www.ctfoodbank.org/

http://communityplates.org/

http://www.rockandwrapitup.org/

http://www.ctfoodbank.org/how-to-help/plant-a-row

http://www.ampleharvest.org/index.php

Or call 2-1-1  http://www.211ct.org/AboutUs/Default.asp

Many of us gardeners produce more that we can freeze/can/dry/giveaway before our harvest starts to lose its freshness and nutritional qualities. For those not able to grow food crops, think about planning meals to avoid waste and purchasing nutritious vegetables, fruits and meats produced locally.

Do consider finding a community garden in your community if gardening space is limited at your residence. The CT Community Gardening Association can help find suitable space in some areas of the state.

Charmaine Craig from Knox is the current president of CCGA, seen here with Steve Kovach, CCGA board member.

Charmaine Craig from Knox is the current president of CCGA, seen here with Steve Kovach, CCGA board member.

Growing one’s own food can provide a great deal of satisfaction and sustenance. While it can be challenging at times, acquiring knowledge at events like this one or contacting the horticulturists at the UConn Home & Garden Education Center (860) 486-6271 or Master Gardener volunteers at your local Cooperative Extension Center will help you grow healthy and productive crops.

As far as what else to do with food waste, many gardeners add kitchen wastes to their compost piles. Composting is a time-honored method of disposing of a large amount of kitchen and yard wastes (no fats, grease or carnivorous animal droppings) and recycling these items into a wonderful soil amendment. Just so happens that UConn offers an annual Master Composter Program and this year it will be held in Stamford at the Bartlett Arboretum in October.

And on a totally different topic, I went to Magic Wings Butterfly Conservatory in Deerfield with a friend while on vacation and purchased a Monarch butterfly chrysalis thinking I could blog about it hatching. Well one vacation day another event was planned and I noticed the chrysalis becoming transparent. I left it attached to the porch railing in case the butterfly emerged before I got home and low and behold it did! So much for that idea, but some compensation. The next day was my sister’s birthday  (she lives a short distance from me) and she told me she was so excited to see a Monarch butterfly in her garden – the first one she saw all year. Maybe it was the one that emerged from my chrysalis. But even if not, I will wish it an uneventful journey to its Mexican wintering grounds.

Monarch butterfly chrysalis just before emergence.

Monarch butterfly chrysalis just before emergence.

Happy Harvesting! Keep on Gardening!

Dawn P.

A great sustainable way to collect water for use in your garden and flower beds is to use a rain barrel. Placed beneath a down spout, these barrels will collect free water every time that it rains. We have one 45-gallon barrel placed in the front of our home and a 60-gallon barrel in the back. It is amazing how quickly they can fill up. A watering can left beside each one makes it easy to water flower beds, window boxes, and the vegetable garden. Okay, the last one may take a bit more effort but consider it free strength-conditioning! The barrels come in many different styles and sizes including a collapsible version which makes for easy winter storage.

Vegetable gardens need a consistent supply of water in order to achieve their full potential, generally 1” per week. Since Connecticut’s average rainfall is 3-4” per month it would seem that rainfall alone would be sufficient. However, sunny days with temperatures in the 80’s and 90’s and warm nights will increase the demand as will sandy soils that drain more quickly than clay soils. It isn’t easy to gauge the amount that is actually available to the plant roots.
Unless you are using soaker hoses or drip irrigation, it can be difficult to direct water to the roots of a plant. So much tends to run off to where you don’t need it. Last year I tried a new method of delivering water to the tomato plants using purchased disposable aluminum angel food/bundt cake pans.

Tomato plant with foil watering pan   Photo by Susan Pelton

 

 

With an awl or a large nail, punch holes through the flat bottom of the pan and also through the center core. Do not put any holes in the outer sides as you want the water to be directed in and down. When planting, dig a hole that is the width of the pan but not quite as deep. You will also need to dig an area in the center of this hole into which the seedling will sit. Holding the seedling in one hand gently thread the stem and leaves up and through the center cone of the pan. Place the seedling and pan into the prepared hole filling in with soil under the pan if necessary. Press down gently to seat the pan. The rim should still be about ½”above the soil line.

Water is poured directly into the pan where it then seeps into the soil. It makes it very easy to see how much water is being supplied and fertilizer supplements can be put into the pan where they will be released. As the plants are surrounded by foil it may decrease the amount of soil-borne pathogens that might splash up onto the plants. The results of this project were good enough to do it again this year.

 

 My second experiment at target watering was directed at the cucurbits in the garden. We all know that squash, cucumbers and zucchini are often planted in hills. Every year I get the mounds nicely set, with lovely little plants growing forth, but it seems that every watering erodes the hills until there is nothing left. And most of the water applied just seems to trickle down the sides. I punched holes into the bottom and sides of empty soup cans and pushed one into the center of each hill. Seeds were planted around the cans with the hope that the water would reach the roots. It worked to some extent but the hills still tended to erode.

This year, as I was hanging some wire-framed coco fiber-lined baskets, a thought occurred to me. Why not invert the basket and let the liner and frame hold the squash hill in place? I cut a 3” hole from the base of the coco liner, filled the basket with garden soil, and inverted it directly on the spot in the garden. I then planted the seeds in the hole which was now at the ‘top’ of the basket.

 

 

Squash mounds Photo by Susan Pelton

 

 

 

 

 

 

All watering is done directly into the center hole and the coco fibers prevent the soil from drying out. The wire frame of the basket also makes a great support for plant stakes that keep the vines up off the ground. So far this year the results of these innovations have been good and the plants are thriving.

 

 

 

Watering directly to the base of the Squash  Photo by Susan Pelton

 

There isn’t anything as delicious as tomatoes, squash and zucchini fresh from the garden! Here’s a recipe to try that makes use of these ingredients: Slice them into ½” rounds, brush with olive oil, sprinkle with salt and pepper and grill until cooked through.

Fresh zucchini, tomatoes, and mozzarella  Photo by Susan Pelton

Starting with a base of fresh or grilled polenta, stack the vegetables alternately with rounds of fresh mozzarella and pesto. Enjoy!

Zucchini & Tomato Napoleon  Photo by Susan PeltonSusan Pelton

 

Late summer in the vegetable garden can be a time of great harvest and a time of disappointment. The spring planted lettuce, spinach and radishes have all gone to seed, and insects and disease are taking their toll on crops that have lasted til now. Tomatoes, peppers and eggplants are producing their bounties in large amounts and cleaned out beds hold the promise of another round of seed planting for greens. Try kale, winter lettuces and chard. Below is a visual tour of what is happening in my garden.

- Carol Quish

Eggplant ready to be picked. photo by Carol Quish

Eggplant ready to be picked. photo by Carol Quish

Sweetie Cherry Tomato plant with brown leaves stripped off of the bottom of the plant to reduce fungal spores in the tomato bed. photo Carol Quish

Sweetie Cherry Tomato plant with brown leaves stripped off of the bottom of the plant to reduce fungal spores in the tomato bed. photo Carol Quish

200

Red Onions beginning to have their tops fall over. Harvest after tops die back. Photo Carol Quish

Peas plants have been removed making room for Bright Lights Swiss Chard to grow. Photo Carol Quish

Peas plants have been removed making room for Bright Lights Swiss Chard to grow. Photo Carol Quish

Pole Green Beans are in need of picking! Photo Carol Quish

Pole Green Beans are in need of picking! Photo Carol Quish

213

Zinnia’s are keeping the pollinators happy so they continue to visit the garden. Photo Carol Quish.

Every garden needs some blooming flowers. Keep up with dead heading to the the flowers coming. Photo Carol Quish

Every garden needs some blooming flowers. Keep up with dead heading to the the flowers coming. Photo Carol Quish

Zucchini leave attacked by powdery mildew. I should remove this so the unaffected plants might be protected. Photo Carol Quish

Zucchini leave attacked by powdery mildew. I should remove this so the unaffected plants might be protected. Photo Carol Quish

Waltham Butternut Squash vining its way over the potato plants. Photo Carol Quish

Waltham Butternut Squash vining its way over the potato plants. Photo Carol Quish

Red Kuri Winter Squash pitiful harvest. Vines were killed by the Squash Vine Borer. Photo Carol Quish

Red Kuri Winter Squash pitiful harvest. Vines were killed by the Squash Vine Borer. Photo Carol Quish

Late ripening blueberry variety keeps the fruit season coming. Photo Carol Quish

Late ripening blueberry variety keeps the fruit season coming. Photo Carol Quish

 

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 175 other followers